Basic information Chemical Properties Toxicity Uses Production method Safety Related Supplier
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Boron trichloride

Basic information Chemical Properties Toxicity Uses Production method Safety Related Supplier
Boron trichloride Basic information
Boron trichloride Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:−107 °C(lit.)
  • Boiling point:12.5 °C(lit.)
  • Density 1.326 g/mL at 25 °C
  • vapor density 4.05 (vs air)
  • vapor pressure 29.72 psi ( 55 °C)
  • Flash point:84 °F
  • storage temp. 2-8°C
  • solubility Miscible with dichloromethane, ethanol, carbon tetrachloride, diethyl ether, dimethyl formamide, aromatic solvents, saturated and halogenated hydrocarbon.
  • form Solution
  • color White
  • Water Solubility decomposes
  • Sensitive Moisture Sensitive
  • Merck 14,1348
  • Stability:Unstable. Incompatible with metals. Reacts violently with water. Reacts vigorously with aniline, phosphine, dinitrogen tetroxide. Fumes in moist air.
  • CAS DataBase Reference10294-34-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceBorane, trichloro-(10294-34-5)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemBoron trichloride (10294-34-5)
Safety Information
MSDS
Boron trichloride Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical PropertiesColorless transparent liquid with a strong unpleasant odor. Density 1.349(11℃), melting point 107.3℃, boiling point12.5℃. Hydrogen chloride and boric acid were decomposed out in case of water accompanied with large amount of heat. Forming white corrosive thick smoke in case of moisture due to hydrolyzation. Boron trichloride is much reactive, can form a variety of coordination compounds, has high thermodynamic stability, can break down to form boron chloride under discharge. In the atmosphere, boron trichloride can react with glass, ceramics by heating. It can also react with many organic to form various kinds of organic boron compounds
  • ToxicityNonflammable gas, strong reactivity, explosive decomposition in case of water, violent Reaction with metals, organics etc, Strongly corroding most metals in case of moisture, corroding glass, both the toxicity of hydrogen chloride and boron.
    Forming white corrosive thick smoke in case of moisture, Strong reaction in case of water and sending out irritant and corrosive hydrogen chloride gas, gas Contact can irritate eyes, skin and respiratory system, the liquid can burn the eyes and skin.
    Patients who inhale gasses should move away from the contaminated area, rest and stay warm. Severe patients should seek medical treatment. In case of contact with skin, rinse immediately with plenty of water. Patients with burns should seek medical treatment. Patients induced by drug misusage should immediately gargle, drink water and be sent to hospital in time.
    Boron trichloride enters the body through respiratory and digestive tract and penetrating skin. Corrosion eyes. It hurts eyes, mucous membrane, skin, the liver, kidney and brain. Toxic smoke can cause emphysema and even death. Therefore, safeguard measures should be taken to protect respiratory tract and eyes from being seriously hurt.
  • Uses
    • Boron trichloride can be used to produce high purity boron, catalyst in organic synthesis, fluxing agen for decomposition of silicate, boronizing steel, produce Boron nitride and borane compound.
    • Boron trichloride is mainly used in the diffusion, ion implantation, the dry etching process for producing silicon semiconductor devices and integrated circuits in electronic industry.
    • Boron trichloride is Used as a semiconductor silicon doping source.
    • Boron trichloride is Used for the preparation of fatty acid methyl ester and for ester exchange reaction of triglyceride.
  • Production methodRefined boron trichloride as raw material is purified by adsorption and distillation to produce boron trichloride with high purity.
    Boron trichloride Synthesis method is as following.
    Dry boron powder is put in a tubular reaction tube.
    Inert gas was used to eliminate air first, and then heated to 300 ℃, a small amount of chlorine gas is piped in, under 650 ℃, a large amount of chlorine gas is piped in and  the temperature is controlled  in  the range of 650~ 750 ℃.
    As–prepared  boron trichloride is  collected by dry ice under cooling, then through distillation,to produce trichloride.
    2B+3C12→2BCl3
  • Chemical Propertiescolourless gas
  • Chemical PropertiesBoron trichloride is a colorless gas with a pungent odor. Boron trichloride reacts violently with water, and on decomposition and hydrolysis yields hydrochloric and boric acid. It has a pungent, highly irritating odor. Occupational exposure to boron and boron compounds can occur in industries that produce special glass, washing powder, soap and cosmetics, leather, cement, etc.
  • Chemical PropertiesBoron trichloride is a colorless liquid or liquefied gas with a pungent, irritating odor.
  • Physical propertiesColorless gas (or fuming liquid); density 5.14 g/L; liquefies at 12.6°C; solidifies at -107°C; vapor pressure 470 torr at 0°C; critical temperature 182°C; critical pressure 38.2 atm; critical molar volume 239 cm3/mol; reacts with water and ethanol; soluble in carbon tetrachloride.
  • UsesFor preparing methyl esters of fatty acids and for transesterification of triglycerides.
  • Usesmanufacture of and purification of boron; as catalyst for organic reactions; in semiconductors; in bonding of iron, steels; in purification of metal alloys to remove oxides, nitrides and carbides.
  • DefinitionA fuming liquid made by passing dry chlorine over heated boron. It is rapidly hydrolysed by water: BCl3 + 3H2O → 3HCl + H3BO3 As there are only three pairs of shared electrons in the outer shell of the boron atom, boron halides form very stable addition compounds with ammonia by the acceptance of a lone electron pair in a coordinate bond to complete a shared octet.
  • Definitionboron trichloride: A colourlessfuming liquid, BCl3, which reactswith water to give hydrogen chlorideand boric acid; r.d. 1.349; m.p.–107°C; b.p. 12.5°C. Boron trichlorideis prepared industrially by theexothermic chlorination of boroncarbide at above 700°C, followed byfractional distillation. An alternative,but more expensive, laboratorymethod is the reaction of dry chlorinewith boron at high temperature.Boron trichloride is a Lewis acid,forming stable addition compoundswith such donors as ammonia andthe amines and is used in the laboratoryto promote reactions that liberatethese donors. The compound isimportant industrially as a source ofpure boron (reduction with hydrogen)for the electronics industry. It isalso used for the preparation of boranesby reaction with metal hydrides.
  • PreparationBoron trichloride can be prepared by high temperature chlorination of boron trioxide, boric acid, metal borates or other boron compounds. Chlorine, hydrogen chloride, phosgene, silicon tetrachloride, metal chlorides, carbontetrachloride, sulfuryl chloride and phosphorus tri- and pentachlorides are some of the common chlorinating agents. The reaction is carried out at temperatures varying between 400° to 1,400°C, depending on the reactants used. In commercial processes, carbon is generally used to reduce boron oxide during its chlorination. Some of the preparative reactions are outlined below:
    B2O3 + 2PCl3 → 2BCl3 + P2O3
    2B2O3 + 3CCl4 → 4BCl3 + 3CO2
    B2O3 + 3C+ 3Cl2 → 2BCl3 + 3CO
    2B(OH)3 +3C + 3Cl2 → 2BCl3 + 3CO + 3H2O
    B2O3 + 3C + 6HCl → 2BCl3 + 3CO + 3H2
    Na2B4O7 + 7C + 14HCl → 4BCl3 + 2NaCl + 7CO + 7H2
    2KBF4 + 3MgCl2 → 2BCl3 + 2KF + 3MgF2
    Boron trichloride may also be obtained by high temperature chlorination of boron:
    2B + 3Cl2 → 2BCl3
    B + 3AgCl → BCl3 + 3Ag
    In the laboratory, boron trichloride may be made at ordinary temperatures by the reaction of boron trifluoride with aluminum chloride:
    BF3 + AlCl3 → BCl3 + AlF3
  • General DescriptionA colorless gas with a pungent odor. Fumes irritate the eyes and mucous membranes. Corrosive to metals and tissue and is toxic. Under prolonged exposure to fire or intense heat, the containers may rupture violently and rocket. Used as a catalyst in chemical manufacture, in soldering fluxes, and for many other uses.
  • Air & Water ReactionsFumes in air, including moisture in air and soil, to form hydrochloric acid [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. Reacts vigorously with water and forms hydrochloric acid fumes and boric acid.
  • Reactivity ProfileBoron trichloride vigorously attacks elastomers and packing materials. Contact with Viton, Tygon, Saran and natural and synthetic rubbers is not recommended. Highly corrosive to most metals in the presence of moisture. Reacts energetically with nitrogen dioxide/dinitrogen tetraoxide, aniline, phosphine, triethylsilane, or fat and grease [Mellor 5:132 1946-47]. Reacts exothermically with chemical bases (examples: amines, amides, inorganic hydroxides).
  • HazardStrong irritant to tissue. Fumes are corro- sive and toxic.
  • Health HazardStrong irritant to tissue. Fumes are corrosive and highly toxic. Boron affects the central nervous system causing depression of circulation as well as shock and coma. May cause severe burns to skin. May result in marked fluid and electrolyte loss and shock.
  • Health HazardThe fumes of boron trichloride irritate the eyes and mucous membranes. On contact, it can cause severe skin burns, severe pain, redness, necrosis, and scarring. It is corrosive to metals and living tissues. On inhalation, boron trichloride causes chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema—a result of exposure to the lower respiratory tract and deep lung. Occupational workers exposed to boron trichloride show symptoms such as tearing of the eyes, coughing, labored breathing, excessive salivary and sputum formation leading to pulmonary malfunction. Boron trichloride is a strong irritant to tissues and its fumes are corrosive and highly toxic. Boron affects the CNS causing depression of circulation as well as shock and coma. The signs and symptoms of acute exposure to boron trichloride include salivation, intense thirst, diffi culty in swallowing, chills, pain, shock, and oral, esophageal, and stomach burns. Ingestion of boron trichloride in work areas leads to circulatory collapse of the worker. On acute inhalation, boron trichloride result in sneezing, hoarseness, choking, laryngitis, and respiratory tract irritation along with bleeding of the nose and gums, ulceration of the nasal and oral mucosa, bronchitis, pneumonia, dyspnea, chest pain, and pulmonary edema.
  • Fire HazardWhen heated to decomposition, Boron trichloride emits toxic fumes of chlorides. Boron trichloride will react with water or steam to produce heat, and toxic and corrosive fumes. In hot water, decomposes to hydrochloric acid and boric acid. Fumes and hydrolyzes in moist air to form hydrochloric acid and oily, irritating corrosives. Avoid aniline, hexafluorisopropylidene amino lithium, nitrogen dioxide, phosphine, grease, organic matter, and oxygen. Nitrogen peroxide, phosphine, fat or grease react energetically with Boron trichloride . Oxygen and Boron trichloride react vigorously on sparking. Boron trichloride and aniline react violently in the absence of a coolant or diluent. Stable.
  • Industrial usesBoron trichloride (BCl3) act as Lewis acids to a wide range of electron-pair donors, and this has led to their widespread use as catalysts.
  • Potential ExposureUsed in refining of aluminum, magnesium, copper alloys, and in polymerization of styrene. Manufacture and purification of boron; catalyst in organic reactions; semiconductors; bonding of iron or steel; purification of metal alloys to remove oxides, nitrides, and carbides; chemical intermediate for boron filaments; soldering flux; electrical resistors; and extinguishing magnesium fires in heat treating furnaces.
  • storageBoron trichloride cylinders should be protected from physical damage. The cylinders should be stored upright and fi rmly secured to prevent falling or being knocked over, in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area of non-combustible construction away from heavily traffi cked areas and emergency exits
  • ShippingUN1741 Boron trichloride, Hazard class: 2.3; Labels: 2.3—Poisonous gas, 8—Corrosive material, Inhalation Hazard Zone C. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner.
  • Purification MethodsPurify it (from chlorine) by passage through two mercury-filled bubblers, then fractionally distil it under a slight vacuum. In a more extensive purification the nitrobenzene addition compound is formed by passage of the gas over nitrobenzene in a vacuum system at 10o. Volatile impurities are removed from the crystalline yellow solid by pumping at -20o, and the BCl3 is recovered by warming the addition compound at 50o. Passage through a trap at -78o removes entrained nitrobenzene, the BCl3 finally condensing in a trap at -112o [Brown & Holmes J Am Chem Soc 78 2173 1956]. Also purify it by condensing it into a trap cooled in acetone/Dry-ice, where it is pumped for 15minutes to remove volatile impurities. It is then warmed, recondensed and again pumped. [Gamble Inorg Synth III 27 1950.] TOXIC.
  • IncompatibilitiesIncompatible with lead, graphiteimpregnated asbestos, potassium, sodium. Vigorously attacks elastomers, packing materials, natural and synthetic rubber; viton, tygon, saran, silastic elastomers. Avoid aniline, hexafluorisopropylidene amino lithium, nitrogen dioxide, phosphine, grease, organic matter; and oxygen. Nitrogen peroxide, phosphine. Fat or grease react vigorously with boron trichloride. It reacts with water or steam to produce heat, boric acid, and corrosive hydrochloric acid fumes. Oxygen and boron trichloride react vigorously on sparking. Attacks most metals in the presence of moisture.
  • Waste DisposalReturn refillable compressed gas cylinders to supplier. Nonrefillable cylinders should be disposed of in accordance with local, state, and federal regulations. Allow remaining gas to vent slowly into atmosphere in an unconfined area or exhaust hood. Refillabletype cylinders should be returned to original supplier with any valve caps and outlet plugs secured and valve protection caps in place.
  • PrecautionsBoron trichloride vigorously attacks elastomers and packing materials, natural and synthetic rubbers. It also reacts energetically with nitrogen dioxide/dinitrogen tetraoxide, aniline, phosphine, triethylsilane, or fat and grease. It reacts exothermically with chemical bases such as amines, amides, and inorganic hydroxides. Occupational workers should use gloves of neoprene or butyl rubber, PVC or polyethylene, safety goggles, or glasses and face shield, and safety shoes.
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