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2-Methyl-2-butanol Basic information
2-Methyl-2-butanol Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:-12 °C
  • Boiling point:102 °C(lit.)
  • Density 0.805 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
  • vapor density 3 (vs air)
  • vapor pressure 15.5 hPa (20 °C)
  • refractive index n20/D 1.405(lit.)
  • Flash point:20 °C
  • storage temp. Flammables area
  • solubility Miscible with alcohol, ether, benzene, chloroform, glycerol, oils and acetone.
  • pka15.38±0.29(Predicted)
  • form Liquid
  • color Clear colorless
  • PH6.0 (118g/l, H2O, 20℃)neutral
  • Odor Threshold0.088ppm
  • explosive limit1.3-9.6%(V)
  • Water Solubility 120 g/L (20 ºC)
  • Merck 14,7140
  • BRN 1361351
  • Stability:Light sensitive. Highly flammable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
  • CAS DataBase Reference75-85-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry Reference2-Butanol, 2-methyl-(75-85-4)
  • EPA Substance Registry System2-Methyl-2-butanol (75-85-4)
Safety Information
  • Hazard Codes F,Xn
  • Risk Statements 11-20-37/38-41-21
  • Safety Statements 46-39-36/37-26
  • RIDADR UN 1105 3/PG 2
  • WGK Germany 1
  • RTECS SC0175000
  • Autoignition Temperature819 °F
  • TSCA Yes
  • HazardClass 3
  • PackingGroup II
  • HS Code 29051500
  • Hazardous Substances Data75-85-4(Hazardous Substances Data)
  • ToxicityLD50 orally in rats: 1.0 g/kg (Schaffarzick, Brown)
2-Methyl-2-butanol Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical Propertiescolourless liquid with a camphor-like odour
  • Chemical PropertiesAmyl alcohol is produced during the fermentation of grains, potatoes, and beets. It is also produced during the acid hydrolysis of petroleum fraction. Amyl alcohol is widely used in industry. For example, in the manufacturing of lacquers, paints, varnishes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, plastics, rubber, explosives, hydraulic fl uids, for the extraction of fats, is also used in the petroleum refi nery industries
  • Chemical PropertiesAmyl alcohols (pentanols) have eight isomers. All are flammable, colorless liquids, except the isomer 2,2- dimethyl-1-propanol, which is a crystalline solid.
  • Chemical Propertiestert-Amyl alcohol is a volatile liquid.2-Methyl-2-butanol has a sour odor, a threshold value of 8.2 mg/m3 (2.3 ppm), an absolute perception limit of 0.04 ppm, and a 100% recognition level of 0.23 ppm .
  • UsesPharmaceutic aid (solvent).
  • DefinitionChEBI: A tertiary alcohol that is propan-1-ol in which both of the hydrogens at position 1 have been replaced by methyl groups.
  • Production Methodstert-Amyl alcohol is prepared by hydrating 2-methyl-2- butenes. It can also be prepared by reducing pivalic acid.
  • General DescriptionA clear, colorless liquid with an odor of camphor. Flash point 70°F. Density 0.81 g / cm3. Slightly soluble in water.
  • Air & Water ReactionsHighly flammable. Slightly soluble in water.
  • Reactivity Profile2-Methyl-2-butanol attacks plastics [Handling Chemicals Safely 1980. p. 236]. Reacts violently with acetyl bromide [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. Mixtures of alcohols with concentrated sulfuric acid and strong hydrogen peroxide can cause explosions. Example: an explosion will occur if dimethylbenzylcarbinol is added to 90% hydrogen peroxide then acidified with concentrated sulfuric acid. Mixtures of ethyl alcohol with concentrated hydrogen peroxide form powerful explosives. Mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and 1-phenyl-2-methyl propyl alcohol tend to explode if acidified with 70% sulfuric acid [Chem. Eng. News 45(43):73 1967; J, Org. Chem. 28:1893 1963]. Alkyl hypochlorites are violently explosive. They are readily obtained by reacting hypochlorous acid and alcohols either in aqueous solution or mixed aqueous-carbon tetrachloride solutions. Chlorine plus alcohols would similarly yield alkyl hypochlorites. They decompose in the cold and explode on exposure to sunlight or heat. Tertiary hypochlorites are less unstable than secondary or primary hypochlorites [NFPA 491 M, 1991]. Base-catalysed reactions of isocyanates with alcohols should be carried out in inert solvents. Such reactions in the absence of solvents often occur with explosive violence [Wischmeyer 1969].
  • HazardFlammable, dangerous fire risk.
  • Health HazardInhalation of the vapors of amyl alcohol causes tearing, pain, redness, swelling, irritation of the mucous membrane of the eyes, nose, throat, and upper respiratory tract and of thskin. Acute and long-term exposure to amyl alcohol causes nausea, vomiting, headache, vertigo, and muscular weakness. Vomiting may cause aspiration into the lungs, resulting in chemical pneumonia. After a prolonged period of exposure to amyl alcohol, workers develop dizziness, double vision, shortness of breath, delirium, and related narcotic effects. In severe cases, inhalation leads to pulmonary edema, kidney injury, effects on the heart and becomes fatal. Occupational workers with pre-existing skin disorders, eye problems, or impaired liver, kidney, or respiratory function, may be more susceptible to the effects of amyl alcohol.
  • Health HazardInhalation or contact with material may irritate or burn skin and eyes. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution.
  • Fire HazardHIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.
  • Safety ProfileModerately toxic to humans by an unspecified route. Moderately toxic experimentally by ingestion, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and rectal routes. Narcotic in high concentration. Flammable liquid when exposed to heat, flame, or oxiduing materials. Moderately explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. A hypnotic agent. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
  • Potential Exposure(n-isomer); Suspected reprotoxic hazard, Primary irritant (w/o allergic reaction), (iso-, primary): Possible risk of forming tumors, Primary irritant (w/o allergic reaction), (sec-, active primary-, and other isomers) Primary irritant (w/o allergic reaction). Used as a solvent in organic synthesis and synthetic flavoring, pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitors; making plastics and other chemicals; as a flotation agent. The (n-isomer) is used in preparation of oil additives, plasticizers, synthetic lubricants, and as a solvent.
  • ShippingUN2811 Pentanols, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3- Flammable liquid. UN1987 Alcohols, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid.
  • Purification MethodsReflux it with K2CO3, CaH2, CaO or sodium, then fractionally distil. The near-dry alcohol is further dried by refluxing with Mg activated with iodine, as described for ethanol. Further purification is possible using fractional crystallisation and zone refining at <-10o or preparative gas chromatography. [Beilstein 1 IV 1668.]
  • IncompatibilitiesForms an explosive mixture with air. Contact with strong oxidizers and hydrogen trisulfide may cause fire and explosions. Incompatible with strong acids. Violent reaction with alkaline earth metals forming hydrogen, a flammable gas.
  • Waste DisposalDissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed.
  • PrecautionsDuring handling and use of amyl alcohol, persons with pre-existing skin disorders, eye problems, or impaired liver, kidney, or respiratory function, should be careful since these workers/persons are more susceptible to the effects of amyl alcohol
2-Methyl-2-butanol Preparation Products And Raw materials
2-Methyl-2-butanol(75-85-4)Related Product Information
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