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Bacillus thuringiensis

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Bacillus thuringiensis Basic information
Bacillus thuringiensis Chemical Properties
  • Boiling point:100°C
  • Density 09 mg/ml
  • color Light reddish-brown suspension concentrate inwater
  • Odorfishy odor,Nonflammable
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemBacillus thuringiensis (68038-71-1)
Safety Information
  • ToxicityLD50 oral in rat: > 20gm/kg
Bacillus thuringiensis Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionBacillus thuringiensis is the most widely known and researched bacterium within this group and is differentiated from other spore-forming bacilli by the presence of a parasporal body that is formed within the sporangium during sporogenesis. The parasporal body is a high-molecular-mass protein crystal that is referred to as crystalline protein, δ-endotoxin, as well as a parasporal body. This protein moiety possesses some of the insecticidal properties of the bacterium (26).
  • Chemical PropertiesBacillus thuringiensis is commonly known as B.t. It is a microorganism that produces chem- icals toxic to insects. B.t. was registered in the United States for use as a pesticide in 1961 and re-registered in 1998. B.t. occurs naturally in the environment and has been isolated from soil, insects, and plant surfaces. B.t. pesticides are used for food and non-food crops, greenhouses, forests, and outdoor home use. B.t. pesticides exist in granular, powder, dust, suspension, and l owable forms. A number of insecticides are based on these toxins. B.t. is considered ideal for pest man- agement because of its specii city to pests and because of its lack of toxicity to humans as well as natural enemies of many crop pests. There are different strains of B.t., each with specii c toxicity to particular types of insects. For instance, B.t. aizawai (B.t.a.) is used against wax moth larvae in honeycombs, B.t. israelensis (B.t.i.) is effective against mos- quitoes, blackl ies and some midges, and B.t. kurstaki (B.t.k.) controls various types of lepidopterous insects, including the gypsy moth and cabbage looper. A new strain, B.t. san diego, has been found to be effective against certain beetle species and the boll weevil. In order to be effective, B.t. must be eaten by insects in the immature, feeding stage of larvae development. B.t. is ineffective against adult insects. Regular monitoring of the target insect population before application of B.t. ensures good control of the vulnerable larval stage. More than 150 insects, mostly lepidopterous larvae, are known to be suscep- tible in some way to B.t. Death of target larvae is known to occur within a few hours to a few weeks of B.t. application, depending on the species of insect and the amount of B.t. ingested by the insect. B.t. is moderately persistent in soil and its toxins degrade rapidly. The movement of B.t. is limited following pesticide application and it is unlikely to contaminate groundwater. B.t. is not native to water and is not likely to multiply in water.
  • HistoryBacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis was isolated from a mosquito breeding site in Israel (33). The discovery of this subspecies provided researchers with an isolate with consistently high toxicity against larvae of mosquitoes and blackflies (order Diptera). All other subspecies are predominantly toxic for larvae of Lepidoptera. This subspecies also contains a parasporal crystal protein. However, this crystal is irregular in size and instead of a single crystal, there are 3–5 crystals. The pathology caused by subspecies israelensis is similar to that of other subspecies of B. thuringiensis in susceptible Lepidoptera. The pathology in black flies is most likely very similar. Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis is also produced by submerged culture.
  • Health HazardThe insecticidal action of B.t. is attributed to protein crystals produced by the bacte- rium. Exposures of test animals to B.t. using several routes did not produce any acute toxicity in birds, dogs, guinea pigs, mice, or rats. Also laboratory rats when injected with B.t.k., showed no toxic or virus-like effects. No oral toxicity was found in rats, mice, or Japanese quail fed protein crystals from B.t. var. israelensis. Studies indicated that after rats ate B.t., the microorganism remained in the digestive system until it was eliminated from the body. Rabbits exposed to B.t. showed mild skin irritation and rats showed low inhalation toxicity to B.t. In fact, chronic toxicity studies in dogs, guinea pigs, rats, and other species of test animals showed no evidence of adverse health effects. The toxicity of B.t. is insect specii c. Researches have provided valuable data and identii ed B.t. subspecies that differ in toxicity to different insects. Examples of B.t. subspecies and the insects they affect are aizawai (moths), kurstaki (moths), israelen- sis (mosquitoes and l ies), and tenebrionis (beetles). Also, phytotoxicity studies (plant researches) showed B.t. genes in some crops (B.t. crops) to combat insects of corn crops, cotton, and potatoes. B.t. must be eaten by insects to be effective and works by interfer- ing with digestion. Insects are most sensitive to B.t. when they are larvae, an immature life stage. Insects that eat B.t., die from hunger or infection. It does not cause disease outbreaks in insect populations. B.t. may produce toxic chemicals that are released from the organism
  • Agricultural UsesBacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is an important insect pathogenic bacterium commercially known as 'Thuricide' It releases toxic polypeptide crystals which are degradable by the enzyme, protease. The bacterium is pathogenic to the following insects: Lepidoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera.
    Bacillus thuringiensis has been exploited commercially and its sprays have been used in the USA since the 1930s. It is the only commercialized transgene. The Bt toxin provides resistance against insects by binding to specific sites in the insect gut. However, insect resistance to Bt is also known.
  • Safety ProfileLow toxicity by ingestion and skincontact. When heated to decomposition it emits acridsmoke and irritating vapors.
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