Penconazole Chemical Properties
- Melting point:58.5 °C
- Boiling point:436.06°C (rough estimate)
- Density 1.2556 (rough estimate)
- vapor pressure 3.7 x l0-4 Pa (25 °C)
- refractive index 1.6300 (estimate)
- Flash point:100 °C
- storage temp. 0-6°C
- Water Solubility 73 mg l-1 (25 °C)
- form neat
- color White
- BRN 541488
- CAS DataBase Reference66246-88-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemPenconazole (66246-88-6)
- Safety Statements 22-24/25
- RIDADR UN 3077 9 / PGIII
- WGK Germany 2
- RTECS XZ4615000
- HS Code 29339900
- ToxicityLD50 skn-rat: >3 g/kg DOVEAA 38,195,84
Penconazole Usage And Synthesis
- UsesPenconazole is an conazole based fungicide that works by inhibiting cell membrane ergosterol biosynthesis, thus stopping the development of fungi.
- UsesPenconazole is used for the control of powdery mildew, pome fruit scab and other pathogenic Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes on vines, cucurbits, pome fruit, stone fruit, ornamentals, hops, tobacco and vegetables.
- Agricultural UsesFungicide: Penconazole is a systemic fungicide used to control powdery mildew. It is used on apples and grapes and other fruits, hops, tobacco, ornamentals and on vegetables. Not currently registered in the U.S. Reported to be used in most European countries. Currently, there are more than 30 global suppliers.
- Trade nameAWARD®; CGA-71818®; ONMEX®; TOPAS®; TOPAS-C®; TOPAS-MZ®; TOPAZ®; TOPAZE®; TOPAZE-C®; TOPENCO 100EC®
- Safety ProfileModerately toxic by ingestion and skin contact. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic vapors of NOx and Clí.
- Metabolic pathwayPenconazole is metabolised in plants by hydroxylation of the propyl side chain and conjugation or metabolism to triazolylalanine and triazolylacetic acid. It is quite persistent in soils but degradation by sunlight requires only a few days. It is eliminated rapidly from mammals.
- DegradationPenconazole (1) is stable to hydrolysis at pH 1-13 and at temperatures up
to 350 °C. It is degraded in sunlight with a DT50 of 4 days in natural sunlight.
Its photochemical reactions have been studied. On irradiation with
light of wavelengths greater than 280 nm (high-pressure mercury lamp
with filter), the major reaction was the formation of a cyclised product (2)
(Scheme 1). Irradiation under the same conditions in isopropanol gave
mainly 2 and 3 (a dechlorinated product). After 8 hours, yields were 29.8%
of 2 and 12.3% of 3 respectively. The product 3 alone photodegraded
only slowly but 2 was completely photolysed within 3 hours to further
products, indicating its role as an intermediate in the photolytic pathways
(Schwack and Hartmann, 1992, 1994). In the presence of isopropanol,
photodehalogenation of 3 to 4 competed with substitution of a
solvent molecule to give a low yield (
- Propiconazole Cyproconazole IPCONAZOLE 1-[[(2S,3S)-3-(2-Chlorophenyl)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)oxiran-2-yl]methyl]-1,2,4-triazole IMIBENCONAZOLE Triadimenol SIMECONAZOLE TRITICONAZOLE Tebuconazole Flutriafol Diniconazole Hexaconazole 1-(2-AMINO[1,2,4]TRIAZOLO[1,5-A]PYRIMIDIN-7-YL)-1-(2,4-DICHLOROPHENYL)-2-BUTANONE Furconazole Penconazole cis-Furconazole 5-(2,4-DICHLOROPHENYL)-4-(1H-1,2,4-TRIAZOL-1-YL)-1,3-CYCLOHEXANEDIONE BROMUCONAZOLE
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