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Berberine

Berberine Structure
Berberine
  • CAS No.2086-83-1
  • Chemical Name:Berberine
  • CBNumber:CB2319032
  • Molecular Formula:C20H18NO4
  • Formula Weight:336.37
  • MOL File:2086-83-1.mol
Berberine Property
  • Melting point: :204-206 °C (dec.)
  • Boiling point: :486.8°C (rough estimate)
  • Density  :1.2976 (rough estimate)
  • refractive index  :1.5800 (estimate)
  • storage temp.  :Inert atmosphere,Room Temperature
  • pka :2.47(at 25℃)
  • color  :White to yellow crystals
  • Water Solubility  :43.48g/L(25 ºC)
  • CAS DataBase Reference :2086-83-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • EWG's Food Scores :1
  • FDA UNII :0I8Y3P32UF
Safety
  • RIDADR  :1544
  • WGK Germany  :2
  • RTECS  :DR9866400
  • F  :3-10
  • HazardClass  :6.1(b)
  • PackingGroup  :III
  • Toxicity :LD50 orl-mus: 329 mg/kg YKKZAJ 82,726,62
Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
  • Symbol(GHS)
  • Signal word
  • Hazard statements
  • Precautionary statements

Berberine Chemical Properties,Usage,Production

  • Description Coptis chinensis was widely used in China as a folk medicine by Shennong around 3000 BC. Coptis chinensis was firstly described in the ancient Chinese medical book The Divine Farmer’s Herb-Root Classic. Coptis chinensis was used to treat intestinal bacterial infections and antipyretic analgesic for thousands of years ago
    Coptis chinensis also called zhilian, chuanlian, weilian, jizhualian, shanglian, and xuanlian in Chinese history. Coptis chinensis was accepted by most physicians, and the Chinese pharmacopoeia also uses Coptis chinensis as its official name . Coptis chinensis mainly grows in Anhui, Hunan, Sichuan, and Yunnan and has been cultivated in Sichuan since the Ming dynasty, which has a long history of cultivation. Other species of Coptis chinensis from different places were used as medicine. However, commodity circulation of wild Rhizoma coptidis has not been formed . Coptis chinensis is national three level protection plants at present and majorly produced in Shizhu of Chongqing, West Hubei, Shanxi, and Gansu.
    Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of isoquinoline alkaloids. It is found in some plants such as huanglian 黄连 (Rhizoma coptidis), huangbo黄柏 (Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex), sankezhen三颗针 (Berberidis Radix), and so on.
    The components of Coptis chinensis which have antibacterial and antiinflammatory effects are original alkaloid berberine class, including berberine, coptisine, palmatine, epiberberine, columbamine, jatrorrhizine, worenine, and magnoflorine, with berberine having the highest content (5–8%).
  • Chemical Properties White to yellow crystals. Iinsoluble in water; soluble in ether, alcohol. Salts of berberine are berberine bisulfate, berberine sulfate, and berberine hydrochloride. All three are yellow crystals, slightly soluble in water.
  • Physical properties Appearance: Berberine is odorless and yellow crystalline powder. Solubility: Berberine is soluble in hot water, slightly soluble in water or ethanol and in chloroform, and insoluble in ether. Melting point: Melting point of berberine is about 204–206?°C.?Berberine is heat labile.
  • History Berberine is often used in the form of quaternary ammonium alkali. The solubility of berberine in water is lower, for example, berberine hydrochloride is 1:500, and berberine sulfate is 1:30. In 1926, berberine was first separated from bark of Zanthoxylum clava. Modern pharmacology study showed that berberine has defined structure and is a monomer of traditional Chinese medicine. Berberine can be obtained from many sources and is used in clinics, with reliable pharmacological effects and various and unique mechanisms.
    At present, berberine can be synthesized by industrial biosynthesis. A series of derivatives can also be synthesized by structure modification, and the pharmacological activities of these derivatives have been tested.
  • Uses Antiseptic drug.Treat intestinal infection caused from dysentery bacillus and E.coil
  • brand name 3 p maid;Berberal;Berberil;Detal;Kenmin-s;Kinosin s;Phelloverin a;Tangenin;Thalsin.
  • World Health Organization (WHO) Berberine, an alkaloid contained in many plants including Berberis species, remains available in many tropical countries. Both traditional herbal remedies and tablet formulations containing this substance have been used in the treatment of gastrointestinal disease, and injectable preparations have been claimed to be of value in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The action taken in Singapore relates to reports of jaundice, haemolytic anaemia and kernicterus with brain damage in infants with G6PD deficiency who were exposed either in utero or post-natally. Preparations for topical application are also available in some countries. These have not been associated with reports of systemic toxicity.
  • Hazard Toxic via ingestion, inhalation, skin absorption.
  • Pharmacology Berberine hydrochloride has extensive pharmacological effects, such as antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticancer, hyperglycemic, antilipidemic, antihypertension, anti-arrhythmic, anti-heart failure, and so on. Experimental study and clinical reports demonstrate that berberine has therapeutic effect on the endocrine system, circulatory system, nervous system, digestive system, and respiratory system and other diseases.
    The clinical indication of berberine is intestinal bacterial infectious diarrhea, which is confirmed by years of clinical application. Berberine hydrochloride exerts effect on intestinal infection, eye conjunctivitis, and suppurative otitis media induced by Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus and ameliorates gastritis and combined gastric and duodenal ulcers. Berberine hydrochloride also has curative effect on acute lung injury, pneumonia, and other respiratory diseases; peptic ulcer, colitis, and other digestive system diseases; pregnancy, urinary, and reproductive system infections; and other urinary tract and reproductive system diseases.
  • Clinical Use Rhizoma coptidis, as the digestive tract disease medication, has a history of more than 3000?years in China and India. Berberine, as a cathartic nonprescription drug, is mainly used in the treatment of intestinal infection clinically. Clinical research showed that berberine has hypoglycemic effect and has very good prevention and treatment for diabetic patients with complications such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, and inflammation
    There are few oral side effects of berberine hydrochloride, accidentally appears nausea, vomiting, rash, and fever, which can disappear after withdrawal of drug. In patients with hemolytic anemia and lack of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, it was forbidden to be used. Berberine if used intravenously is toxic, but is only suitable for oral drug delivery .
  • Safety Profile An alkaloid poison by ingestionand subcutaneous routes. In humans, toxic doses lowerthe body temperature, increase peristalsis, and cause deathby central paralysis. Mutation data reported. Should carry apoison label. Should never be ingested without t
  • Purification Methods Berberine crystallises from pet ether or ether as yellow needles or from H2O. [Beilstein 27 II 567, 27 III/IV 6539.]
Berberine Preparation Products And Raw materials
Raw materials
Preparation Products
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  • C20H18ClNO4
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  • C20H18ClNO4nH2O
  • BioChemical
  • Anti-Proliferative Agents
  • Antitumor Agents
  • Cancer Research
  • Alkaloids
  • Isoquinoline Alkaloids
  • chemical reagent
  • pharmaceutical intermediate
  • phytochemical
  • reference standards from Chinese medicinal herbs (TCM).
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