Chemical properties Uses The standard of allowable maximum amount and residue Production methods
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Chemical properties Uses The standard of allowable maximum amount and residue Production methods
3-Methylindole Structure
  • CAS No.83-34-1
  • Chemical Name:3-Methylindole
  • CBNumber:CB2208725
  • Molecular Formula:C9H9N
  • Formula Weight:131.17
  • MOL File:83-34-1.mol
3-Methylindole Property
  • Melting point: :92-97 °C (lit.)
  • Boiling point: :265-266 °C (lit.)
  • Density  :1.0111 (estimate)
  • refractive index  :1.6070 (estimate)
  • FEMA  :3019 | SKATOLE
  • Flash point: :132 °C
  • storage temp.  :Store below +30°C.
  • form  :Crystalline Powder or Flakes
  • pka :17.30±0.30(Predicted)
  • color  :Almost white to pale brown
  • Odor :indole-like odor
  • Odor Threshold :0.0000056ppm
  • Water Solubility  :Soluble in water, Ether, Alcohols, Benzene, Acetone, Chloroform.
  • Sensitive  :Light Sensitive
  • Merck  :14,8560
  • JECFA Number :1304
  • BRN  :111296
  • Stability: :Stable, but light-sensistive. Stench! Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, acid ahydrides, acid chlorides. Combustible.
  • CAS DataBase Reference :83-34-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS) :SKATOLE
  • FDA 21 CFR :172.515
  • EWG's Food Scores :1
  • FDA UNII :9W945B5H7R
  • NIST Chemistry Reference :1H-Indole, 3-methyl-(83-34-1)
  • EPA Substance Registry System :3-Methylindole (83-34-1)
  • Hazard Codes  :Xi,N
  • Risk Statements  :36/37/38-51/53
  • Safety Statements  :26-36-61
  • RIDADR  :UN3077 - class 9 - PG 3 - DOT/IATA UN3335 - Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., HI: all (not BR)
  • WGK Germany  :2
  • RTECS  :NM0350000
  • F  :8-13
  • TSCA  :Yes
  • HS Code  :29339920
  • Hazardous Substances Data :83-34-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
  • Toxicity :MLD in frogs (mg/kg): 1000 s.c. (Bin-Ichi)
  • NFPA 704:
    2 1
Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
  • Symbol(GHS)
  • Signal wordWarning
  • Hazard statements H370-H315-H319-H335-H411-H303
  • Precautionary statements P260-P264-P270-P280-P302+P352+P332+P313+P362+P364-P305+P351+P338+P337+P313-P307+P311-P405-P501-P261-P273-P305+P351+P338-P280a-P304+P340-P501a
3-Methylindole Price More Price(16)
  • Brand: Sigma-Aldrich
  • Product number: M51458
  • Product name : 3-Methylindole
  • Purity: 98%
  • Packaging: 5g
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  • Brand: Sigma-Aldrich
  • Product number: 90961
  • Product name : 3-Methylindole
  • Purity: analytical standard
  • Packaging: 100mg
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  • Updated: 2021/03/22
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  • Brand: Sigma-Aldrich
  • Product number: 8.20803
  • Product name : 3-Methylindole
  • Purity: for synthesis
  • Packaging: 25 g
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  • Updated: 2021/03/22
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  • Brand: TCI Chemical
  • Product number: M0347
  • Product name : 3-Methylindole
  • Purity: >98.0%(GC)
  • Packaging: 1g
  • Price: $15
  • Updated: 2021/03/22
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  • Brand: TCI Chemical
  • Product number: M0347
  • Product name : 3-Methylindole
  • Purity: >98.0%(GC)
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3-Methylindole Chemical Properties,Usage,Production

  • Chemical properties It is a kind of white crystal. The boiling point is 265-266 ° C; melting point is 93-96 ° C; soluble in 95% ethanol and oil spices three times of its volume. It has the indole-like incense of animals with a salty and strong flavor. The flavor is very strong, with a solid proliferating ability and a long lasting long time. High concentration of it makes people disgusting; only a very low concentration bears a large civet-like and animals-like incense. Moreover, It has a warm ripe fruit-like taste.
  • Uses 1. 3-Methylindole has perfect fragrant value, often used as a fixative, but only used for the trace analysis of floral fragrance in comparison to large civet. It is also used to prepare large civet incense. A combination use with phenylacetic acid, cynomolone or giant ring ketone can get a fine natural animal fragrance. The ultimate trace analysis is used for grape, cheese, fruit, nuts and other fragrant flavor.
    2. 3-methylindole has an unpleasant odor, while there is a pleasant fragrance after an enough dilution, especially the smell of civet-based incense. It will be effective in the cheese, nuts, grapes and other products by adding only a small amount. It can acquire a fish flavor when adding to seafood essence.
    3. Used for organic synthesis reagents.
    4. Used as a biochemical reagent with an inhibiting effect on trypsin. There is a floral fragrance after macrodilution. It is used in cigarettes, perfume in the fragrance, fragrance agent and food spices.
    5. pharmaceutical intermediates; perfume fixative.
  • The standard of allowable maximum amount and residue Name of additives: β-methyl indole
    Name of food allowable for the additive: food
    Function of the additive:Spices used in food
    Maximum allowable amount (g/kg):The amount of spices to compound essence should be lower than the allowable maximum amount and residue listed in GB 2760.
    Maximum allowable residue (g/kg):
  • Production methods 3-Methylindole present in civet, human, cheese, milk and tea. Propionaldehyde and phenylhydrazine can be heated to remove water molecules to obtain propanal phenylhydrazone in industrial production, and then the intermediates heated with zinc chloride or sulfuric acid, through the removal of ammonia molecules can obtain 3-Methylindole.
  • Chemical Properties slightly brown platelets
  • Chemical Properties Skatole has a characteristic putrid, fecal odor at high concentrations, becoming pleasant, jasmine-like, fruity sweet, warm at very low concentrations. It has a warm overripe fruity flavor below 1 ppm.
  • Occurrence Reported found in beetroot, feces, coal tar, Swiss cheese, Gruyere cheese, mozarella cheese, butter, milk, goat and sheep milk, boiled egg, fatty fish, coffee, tea, trassi, rice bran, dried bonito and squid.
  • Uses A highly fluorescent guanosine analogue, which in a dimethoxytrityl, phosphoramidite protected form, can be site-specifically inserted into oligonucleotides through a 3?5?phosphodiester linkage using an automated DNA synthesizer
  • Uses insect attractant
  • Uses A naturally abundant pneumotoxin, found primarily in mammalian feces providing its strong fecal odor. In lower concentrations however, the compound has a pleasent aroma, giving orange blossoms and ja smine their pleasing scent. It is often a component of commercial fragrances and perfumes.
  • Definition ChEBI: A methylindole carrying a methyl substituent at position 3. It is produced during the anoxic metabolism of L-tryptophan in the mammalian digestive tract.
  • Preparation Prepared synthetically from the phenylhydrazone of propionaldehyde or by cyclization of o-toluidides (Bedoukian, 1967).
  • Aroma threshold values Detection: 0.2 ppb
  • Synthesis Reference(s) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 99, p. 3532, 1977 DOI: 10.1021/ja00452a073
    The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 45, p. 2709, 1980 DOI: 10.1021/jo01301a032
    Tetrahedron Letters, 28, p. 5291, 1987 DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(00)96710-8
  • Pharmacology Skatole (l00mg dissolved in 2 ml sesame oil administered by gastric intubation) failed to prevent apoplexy in the adrenals of rats when administered 24 hr before injection of 5 mg of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (Huggins & Fukunishi, 1964).
    In rat costal cartilage, skatole inhibited 35SO42-incorporation into chondroitin sulphate and 14C-labelled proline incorporation into protein (Liberti & Rogers, 1970). In concentrations of 5-10 mM, it inhibited oxygen uptake in slices of rat liver and rat-brain cortex (Lascelles & Taylor, 1968; Walshe et al. 1958). Skatole has also shown depressant (catatonic-like) activity on the swimming behaviour of guppies and the exploratory behaviour of rats (Sprince, 1969). When injected ip, 1 mmol/kg did not have any radioprotective effect in mice, the survival effect (ratio of mean survival time in a treated group to that of the control in 30 days after irradiation) being 0.97 or 0.70 when skatole was administered 30 or 5 min, respectively, before X-irradiation with 800 R (Shinoda et al 1974).
    Skatole (1.0mM) caused >50% inhibition of the anaphylactic release of histamine from chopped, sensitized guinea-pig lung by chymotrypsin substrates and inhibitors (Austen & Brocklehurst, 1961). It had a non-specific excitatory action on the heart of the marine mollusc Venus mercenaria (Greenberg, 1960) and in a 194 μM concentration produced half-maximal positive inotropic activity in isolated left guinea-pig atria (Zetler, 1974).
  • Safety Profile Poison by ingestion, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by subcutaneous route. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx.
  • Chemical Synthesis Indoles (skatole) with various substituents in the 2 and 3 position can be synthesized via the Fisher indole synthesis, which involves two steps and utilizes a phenylhydrazine and an aliphatic or aromatic aldehyde or ketone as starting materials.
  • Metabolic pathway Three major metabolites of 14C-skatole are found in the plasma/urine of pigs given skatole and are identified as 6-sulfatoxyskatole, 3-hydroxy-3- methyloxindole, and the mercapturate adduct of skatole, 3-[(N-acetylcysteine-S-yl)methyl]indole. For other pathways, see the references in the text.
  • Metabolism 3-Methylindole (skatole) has been reported by several authors to be excreted as an ethereal sulphate by dogs, rats and man; distillation of the urine results in the formation of indole, which might well be derived by decarboxylation of indolyl-3-carboxylic acid, an expected oxidation product of skatole (Williams, 1959). Oral administration of skatole to rats resulted in the urinary excretion of a mixture of sulphate esters of hydroxyskatoles (Dalgliesh, Kelly & Horning, 1958; Horning, Sweeley, Dalgliesh & Kelly, 1959). The faeces of rats fed a chow diet were found to contain typtophan metabolites, including up to 0.78 ?g skatole/g wet faeces (Anderson, 1975). Metabolites of skatole were detected in the urine of a human subject fed skatole (Sano & Miyanoki, 1955). In man, skatole has been shown to undergo hydroxylation mainly at position 6. In rats and man, 6-hydroxyskatole is excreted chiefly as the sulphate (Horning et al. 1959), but it may also be excreted as the glucuronide (Sohler, 1966). The metabolites of skatole excreted in the urine of man and 16 species of domestic and wild mammals were also studied by Decker & Gerdemann (1959). After administration of skatole to cattle in a dose of 0.1-0.2 g skatole/kg intraruminally or 0.06g/kg by jugular infusion, the mean plasma concentration of skatole became maximal at 3 and 9hr, respectively (Carlson et al. 1975).
  • Purification Methods Crystallise skatole from *benzene or pet ether (m 96.5o). It has also been purified by zone melting. The picrate has m 182o (from Et2O or Et2O/MeOH). [Beilstein 20 III/IV 3206, 20/7 V 69.]
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Raw materials
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83-34-1, 3-MethylindoleRelated Search:
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  • (Synonyms: 3-?Methylindole
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