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71-36-3

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Identification

Name
1-Butanol
CAS
71-36-3
Synonyms
AQUALINE STANDARD 10.0
1-Butyl alcohol
1-butylalcohol
1-Hydroxybutane
Alcool butylique
alcoolbutylique
alcoolbutylique(french)
butanol(french)
Butanol-1
Butanolen
Butanolo
butanols
butylalcohol(non-specificname)
Butylowy alkohol
butylowyalkohol
butylowyalkohol(polish)
Butyric alcohol
butyricalcohol
butyricornormalprimarybutylalcohol
CCS 203
EINECS(EC#)
200-751-6
Molecular Formula
C4H10O
MDL Number
MFCD08273554
Molecular Weight
74.12
MOL File
71-36-3.mol

Chemical Properties

Description
n-Butyl alcohol is a colourless flammable liquid with strong alcoholic odour. n-Butyl alcohol is a highly refractive liquid and burns with a strongly luminous flame. It is incompatible with strong acids, strong oxidising agents, aluminium, acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, copper, and copper alloys. n-Butyl alcohol has an extensive use in a large number of industries. For instance, it is used as solvent in industries associated with the manufacturing of paints, varnishes, synthetic resins, gums, pharmaceuticals, vegetable oils, dyes, and alkaloids. n-Butyl alcohol finds its use in the manufacture of artificial leather, rubber, plastic cements, shellac, raincoats, perfumes, and photographic films.
Appearance
Colorless liquid
mp 
-89 °C
bp 
117.6 °C
density 
0.81 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)

vapor density 
2.55 (vs air)

FEMA 
2178
refractive index 
n20/D 1.399(lit.)

Fp 
95 °F

storage temp. 
Store at RT.
Stability:
Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, strong oxidizing agents, aluminium, acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, copper, copper alloys. Flammable.
Water Solubility 
80 g/L (20 ºC)
Sensitive 
Moisture Sensitive
Merck 
14,1540
BRN 
969148
CAS DataBase Reference
71-36-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
1-Butanol(71-36-3)
EPA Substance Registry System
71-36-3(EPA Substance)

Hazard Information

Chemical Properties
n-Butyl alcohol is a colorless flammable liquid with a strong alcoholic odor. n-Butyl alcohol is a highly refractive liquid and burns with a strongly luminous flame. It is incompatible with strong acids, strong oxidizing agents, aluminium, acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, copper, and copper alloys. n-Butyl alcohol has extensive use in a large number of industries. For instance, it is used as a solvent in industries associated with the manufacturing of paints, varnishes, synthetic resins, gums, pharmaceuticals, veg etable oils, dyes, and alkaloids. n-Butyl alcohol is used in the manufacture of artifi cial leather, rubber, and plastic cements, shellac, raincoats, perfumes, and photographic fi lms.
General Description
Colorless liquid. Used in organic chemical synthesis, plasticizers, detergents, etc.
Reactivity Profile
N-BUTYL ALCOHOL(71-36-3) attacks plastics. [Handling Chemicals Safely 1980. p. 236]. Mixtures with concentrated sulfuric acid and strong hydrogen peroxide can cause explosions. May form explosive butyl hypochlorite by reacting with hypochlorous acid. May form butyl explosive butyl hypochlorite with chlorine.
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Soluble in water.
Hazard
Toxic on prolonged inhalation, irritant to eyes. Toxic when absorbed by skin. Flammable, moderate fire risk. Eye and upper respiratory tract irritant.
Health Hazard
Exposures to n-butyl alcohol by inhalation, ingestion, and/or skin absorption are harm ful. n-Butyl alcohol is an irritant, with a narcotic effect and a CNS depressant. Butyl alcohols have been reported to cause poisoning with symptoms that include, but are not limited to, irritation to the eyes, nose, throat, and the respiratory system. Prolonged exposure results in symptoms of headache, vertigo, drowsiness, corneal infl amma tion, blurred vision, photophobia, and cracked skin. It is advised that workers com ing in contact with n-butyl alcohol should use protective clothing and barrier creams. Occupational workers with pre-existing skin disorders or eye problems, or impaired liver, kidney or respiratory function may be more susceptible to the effects of the substance.
Health Hazard
Anesthesia, nausea, headache, dizziness, irritation of respiratory passages. Mildly irritating to the skin and eyes.
Potential Exposure
Butyl alcohols are used as solvents for paints, lacquers, varnishes, natural and synthetic resins, gums, vegetable oils, dyes, camphor, and alkaloids. They are also used as an intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and chemicals; in the manufacture of artificial leather, safety glass; rubber and plastic cements, shellac, raincoats, photographic films, perfumes; and in plastic fabrication.
Fire Hazard
HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.
First aid
Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. Medical observation is recommended for 24 to 48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy
Shipping
UN1120 Butanols, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3— Flammable liquid. UN1212 Isobutanol or Isobutyl alcohol, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3—Flammable liquid
Incompatibilities
Butyl alcohols may form explosive mixture with air. In all cases they are Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. Attacks some plastics, rubber and coatings. n-Butanol is incompatible with strong acids; halogens, caustics, alkali metals; aliphatic amines; isocyanates. sec-Butanol forms an explosive peroxide in air. Ignites with chromium trioxide. Incompatible with strong oxidizers; strong acids; aliphatic amines; isocyanates, organic peroxides. tert-Butanol is incompatible with strong acids (including mineral acid), including mineral acids; strong oxidizers or caustics, aliphatic amines; isocyanates, alkali metals (i.e., lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, francium). isoButanol is incompatible with strong acids; strong oxidizers; caustics, aliphatic amines; isocyanates, alkali metals and alkali earth. May react with aluminum at high temperatur
Waste Disposal
Incineration, or bury absorbed waste in an approved land fill.

Safety Data

Hazard Codes 
Xn,T,F
Risk Statements 
R10:Flammable.
R22:Harmful if swallowed.
R37/38:Irritating to respiratory system and skin .
R41:Risk of serious damage to eyes.
R67:Vapors may cause drowsiness and dizziness.
R39/23/24/25:Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R23/24/25:Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R11:Highly Flammable.
Safety Statements 
S13:Keep away from food, drink and animal feeding stuffs .
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S37/39:Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection .
S46:If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label .
S7/9:Keep container tightly closed and in a well-ventilated place .
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible) .
S36/37:Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves .
S16:Keep away from sources of ignition-No smoking .
S7:Keep container tightly closed .
RIDADR 
UN 1120 3/PG 3

WGK Germany 
1

RTECS 
EO1400000

HazardClass 
3
PackingGroup 
III
HS Code 
29051300
storage
Store n-butyl alcohol in a cool, dry, well-ventilated location, away from smoking areas. Fire hazard may be acute. Outside or detached storage is preferred. Separate from incompatibles. Containers should be bonded and grounded for transfer to avoid static sparks
Safety Profile
: A poison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic by skin Review: Group 3 IMEMDT 7,56,87; Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 39,67,86* contact, ingestion, subcutaneous, and intraperitoneal routes. Human systemic Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. Community fight-To-Ihow List. OSHA PEL: TWA 10 pprn Classifiable as a Carcinogen DFG MAK: 2 ppm (11 mg/m3) DOT CLASSIFICATION: 3; Label: Flammable Liquid ingestion, inhalation, skin contact, and intraperitoneal routes. Experimental reproductive effects. A skin and eye irritant. Questionable carcinogen. A flammable fight fire, use foam, CO2, dry chemical. Incompatible with oxidzing materials. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid and irritating fumes. See also ESTERS. effects by inhalation: conjunctiva irritation, unspecified respiratory system effects, and nasal effects. Experimental reproductive Though animal experiments have shown the butyl alcohols to possess toxic properties, they have produced few cases of poisoning in industry, probably because of their low reported to have resulted in irritation of the eyes, with corneal inflammation, slight headache and H2ziness, slight irritation of the nose and throat, and dermatitis about fingers. Keratitis has also been reported. Mutation data reported. See also ALCOHOLS. Flammable liquid. Moderately explosive when exposed to flame. ACGIH TLV: TwA PPm (sensitizer); Not effects, A Severe sktn and eye irritant. SAFETY by voladty, The use of normal butyl alcohol is liquid when exposed to heat Or flame* To the fingerndi and along the side of the
Hazardous Substances Data
71-36-3(Hazardous Substances Data)

Raw materials And Preparation Products

Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)

msds information
butyl alcohol(71-36-3).msds

Questions And Answer

Characteristics and history of discovery
1-Butanol is a type of alcohol with four carbon atoms being contained per molecule. Its molecular formula is CH3CH2CH2CH2OH with three isomers, namely iso-butanol, sec-butanol and tert-butanol. It is colorless liquid with alcohol odor.
It has the boiling point of being 117.7 ℃, the density (20 ℃) being ​​0.8109g/cm3, the freezing point being-89.0 ℃, flash point being 36~38 ℃, self-ignition point being 689F and the refractive index being (n20D) 1.3993. At 20 ℃, its solubility in water is 7.7% (by weight) while the water solubility in 1-butanol was 20.1% (by weight). It is miscible with ethanol, ether and other kinds of organic solvents. It can be used as the solvents of a variety of paints and the raw material for producing the plasticizers, dibutyl phthalate. It can also be used for the manufacture of butyl acrylate, butyl acetate, and ethylene glycol butyl ether and also used as the extract of intermediates of organic synthesis and biochemical drugs and can also used in the manufacture of surfactants. Its steam can form explosive mixtures with air with the explosion limit being 3.7%~10.2% (volume fraction).
1-butanol was first discovered by C-A. Wurtz (French) from the fusel oil obtained from the fermentation process of alcohol in 1852. In 1913, the British Strange-Graham Companies have used corn as raw material for production of acetone through the fermentation process with butanol being the main byproduct. Later, due to the increasing demand for butanol, the fermentation production factory began to mainly synthesize n-butanol with acetone and ethanol being the major byproduct. During the Second World War, the German chemical company (Ruhr) began to apply propylene carboxyl method for the production of 1-butanol. With the rise of the oil industry in 1950s, the 1-butanol synthesis method had gotten rapid development with the propylene carboxyl method having the fastest speed.
Preparation of water saturated 1-butanol solution
Add 21 mL of water and 100 mL of 1-butanol to separating funnel of 150 mL, shake for 3 min, stand for layering; and then remove the lower layer with the upper layer being water-saturated 1-butanol solution. (The density of water: 1 g/ml; 1-butanol density: 0.808~0.811 g/ml).
Content Analysis
For the determination of 1-butanol and volatile impurities according to the general gas chromatography (GT-10), use the following conditions:
Column steel column, length: 1.8m; inner diameter: 6.4mm, the packing material should be 10% polyethylene glycol 400M (PEG 400M) with the carrier being 60/80 mesh diatomaceous soil carrier.
Carrier gas: Helium with a flow rate of 45ml/min. Detector: Flame ionization type.
Injector temperature 150 ℃, column temperature 90 0 ℃ detector 150 ℃.
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.
Toxicity
ADI value is not specified (FAO/WHO, 1994).
GRAS (FEMA).
LD50: 790 mg/kg (rat, oral).
Uses
It can be used as chromatography analysis reagents and also applied to organic synthesis, etc.
Butanol is the allowable food flavors documented in the "food additives health standards" of China. It is mainly used for the preparation of food flavors of bananas, butter, cheese and whiskey. For the candy, the usage amount should be 34mg/kg; for baked foods, it should be 32mg/kg; for soft drinks, it should be 12mg/kg; for cold drinks, it should be 7.0mg/kg; for the cream, it should be 4.0mg/kg; for alcohol, it should be 1.0mg/kg.
Butanol can be used as the intermediates of herbicide 2,4-D butyl ester, butachlor, fluazifop and fluazifop P butyl.
GB 2760-96 provides it be the food flavor allowed by using it. It can be mainly used for the preparation of bananas, butter, cheese, whiskey and other flavor. It can also be used as extraction-purpose solvent and pigment diluent.
It is mainly used for the manufacture of the n-butyl plasticizers of phthalic acid, aliphatic dicarboxylic acid and phosphoric acid that are widely applied to various kinds of plastic and rubber products. It can also be used as the raw material of producing butyraldehyde, butyric acid, butyl-amine and butyl lactate in the field of organic synthesis. It can also be used as the extraction agent of oil, drugs (such as antibiotics, hormones and vitamins) and spices as well as the alkyd paint additives. It can be used as the solvent of organic dyes and printing ink and de-waxing agent.
It can be used for the production of the plasticizers of butyl acetate, dibutyl phthalate and phosphate and can also be used in the production of melamine resin, crylic acid, and epoxy varnish, etc.
Production method
There are several methods for their preparation.
Fermentation
In the past, the production of butanol has also used potatoes, grain or sugar as raw material and through their hydrolysis fermentation. The resulting product from the fermentation broth contains a butanol content of 54.8%~58.5%, acetone content of 30.9%~33.7%, and the ethanol content of 7.8%-14.2%. With the development of petrochemical industry, fermentation method has been gradually phased out. The reaction equation is as follows: (C6H10O5) n [n (H2O)] → [strain] n-C6H12O6 [fermentation] → CH3COCH3 + C4H9OH + C2H5OH
The resulted fermentation broth was further fractionated to obtain acetone, ethanol and n-butanol separately.
Acetaldehyde method
Take acetaldehyde as raw material, add dilute alkali solution to give 2-hydroxybutyraldehyde at temperature below 20 ℃ with the reaction being stopped upon reaching 50%. Use alkali to neutralize the acid and recycle the unreacted acetaldehyde and extract the 2-hydroxybutyraldehyde. Then use acidic catalyst such as sulfuric acid and acetic acid for dehydration to obtain crotonaldehyde at 105~137 ℃, then use copper complex catalyst for hydrogenation at 160~240 ℃ to obtain the crude butyraldehyde and 1-butanol with distillation to obtain the products. CH3CH = CHCHO + H2 [catalyst] CH3CH2CH2CHO + CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
Its synthesis method including the following several ways:
Fermentation and Propylene carbonyl synthesis
Put propylene, carbon monoxide and hydrogen to the catalytic bed for reaction with catalyst being zeolite for absorbing cobalt salt or fatty acid cobalt with the reaction temperature being 130~160 ℃ and the reaction pressure being 20~25MPa. The reaction can generate n-butyraldehyde and iso-butyraldehyde with separation via distillation and further catalytic hydrogenation of the n-butyraldehyde to obtain the 1-butanol. CH3CH2CH2CHO + H2 → CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
You can alternatively use low pressure method with first-step method of propylene, carbon monoxide and water for synthesizing the butanol with the reaction temperature being 100~104 ℃ and pressure being 1.5MPa. It applies the mixture of iron pentacarbonyl, n-butyl pyrrolidine and water. However, the one-way conversion of the propylene is low with only 8% to 10%. Reaction equation: CH3CH = CH2 + 3CO + 2H2O → n-C4H9OH + 2CO2

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