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111-76-2

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Identification

Name
2-Butoxyethanol
CAS
111-76-2
Synonyms
2-BUTOXYETHANOL
2-N-BUTOXYETHANOL
BUTOXYETHANOL
BUTYL CELLOSOLVE
BUTYL CELLOSOLVE(R)
BUTYL CELLOSOLVE(TM)
BUTYL CELLUSOLV
BUTYL GLYCOL
BUTYL OXITOL
DOWANOL(R) EB
DOWANOL(TM) EB
EKTASOLVE EB SOLVENT
ETHYLENE GLYCOL BUTYL ETHER
ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOBUTYL ETHER
ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONO-N-BUTYL ETHER
ETHYLENE GLYCOL N-BUTYL ETHER
ETHYLENE GYCOL MONOBUTYL ETHER
GLYCOL BUTYL ETHER
GLYCOL ETHER EB
N-BUTYL CELLOSOLVE
EINECS(EC#)
203-905-0
Molecular Formula
C6H14O2
MDL Number
MFCD00002884
Molecular Weight
118.17
MOL File
111-76-2.mol

Chemical Properties

Description
2-Butoxyethanol is a clear, colourless liquid with ether-like smell.2-Butoxyethanol is usually produced by a reaction of ethylene oxide with butyl alcohol, but it may also be made by the reaction of ethylene glycol with dibutyl sulphate. 2-Butoxyethanol is widely used as a solvent in protective surface coatings such as spray lacquers, quick-dry lacquers, enamels, varnishes, and latex paints. It is also used as an ingredient in paint thinners and strippers, varnish removers, agricultural chemicals, herbicides, silicon caulks, cutting oils, and hydraulic fluids and as metal cleaners, fabric dyes and inks, industrial and household cleaners (as a degreaser), and dry-cleaning compounds. It is also used in liquid soaps and in cosmetics. 2-Butoxyethanol acetate has been reported to be present in air, water, and soil as a contaminant and exposure to it occurs during its manufacture and use as an intermediate in the chemical industry, and during the formulation and use of its products in multiple industrial activities. The acetate form of 2-butoxyethanol is 2-butoxyethanol acetate and also known as ethylene glycol monobutyl ether acetate.
Appearance
clear liquid
Melting point 
-70 °C
mp 
-70 °C
Boiling point 
171 °C
bp 
171 °C
density 
0.902 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)

vapor density 
4.1 (vs air)

vapor pressure 
<1 mm Hg ( 20 °C)

refractive index 
n20/D 1.419(lit.)

Fp 
140 °F

storage temp. 
Store below +30°C.
solubility 
900g/l completely miscible
form 
Liquid
pka
14.42±0.10(Predicted)
color 
Clear
Odor
Mild, characteristic; slightly rancid; mild ethereal.
PH
7 (H2O, 20℃)(as aqueous solution)
Odor Threshold
0.043ppm
explosive limit
1.1-10.6%(V)
Water Solubility 
miscible
λmax
λ: 230 nm Amax: 1.0
λ: 250 nm Amax: 0.10
λ: 275 nm Amax: 0.05
λ: 300-400 nm Amax: 0.01
Merck 
14,1559
BRN 
1732511
Henry's Law Constant
(x 10-6 atm?m3/mol): 2.36 (approximate - calculated from water solubility and vapor pressure)
Exposure limits
TLV-TWA skin 25 ppm (121 mg/m3) (ACGIH), 50 ppm (242 mg/m3) (OSHA); STEL 75 ppm (363 mg/m3) (ACGIH);IDLH 700 ppm (NIOSH). .
CAS DataBase Reference
111-76-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
2-n-Butoxy-1-ethanol(111-76-2)
IARC
3 (Vol. 88) 2006
EPA Substance Registry System
111-76-2(EPA Substance)

Hazard Information

Chemical Properties
2-Butoxyethanol is a clear colorless liquid with an ether-like smell and belongs to the fam ily of glycol ether/alkoxy alcohol. 2-Butoxyethanol is miscible in water and soluble in most organic solvents. 2-Butoxyethanol does not occur naturally. It is usually produced by reacting ethylene oxide with butyl alcohol. It is used as a solvent for nitrocellulose, natural and synthetic resins, soluble oils, in surface coatings, spray lacquers, enamels, varnishes, and latex paints, as an ingredient in paint thinners, quick-dry lacquers, latex paint, and strippers, varnish removers, and herbicides. 2-Butoxyethanol is also used in textile dyeing and printing, in the treatment of leather, in the production of plasticizers, as a stabilizer in metal cleaners and household cleaners, and in hydraulic fl uids, insecticides, herbicides, and rust removers. It is also used as an ingredient in liquid soaps, cosmetics, industrial and household cleaners, dry-cleaning compounds, and as an ingredient in silicon caulks, cutting oils, and hydraulic fl uids. 2-Butoxyethanol is a fi re hazard when exposed to heat, sparks, or open flames
General Description
A colorless liquid with a mild, pleasant odor. Less dense than water. Flash point 160°F. Irritates skin and eyes and may be toxic by ingestion. Used as a solvent and to make paints and varnish.
Reactivity Profile
ETHYLENE GLYCOL N-BUTYL ETHER may react with bases, aluminum and oxidizing materials. ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOBUTYL ETHER(111-76-2) is liable to form peroxides on exposure to air and light. ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOBUTYL ETHER(111-76-2) attacks some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings. .
Air & Water Reactions
This chemical is sensitive to air and light. Slightly soluble in water.
Hazard
A toxic material. Eye and upper respiratory tract irritant. Questionable carcinogen.
Health Hazard
2-Butoxyethanol is present in a variety of consumer products, including cleaning agents and surface coatings, such as paints, lacquers, and varnishes. 2-Butoxyethanol is readily absorbed following inhalation, oral, and dermal exposure. 2-Butoxyethanol is released into air or water by different industrial activities and facilities that manu facture, process, or use the chemical. Exposure to 2-butoxyethanol causes irritating effects to the eyes and skin, but it has not induced skin sensitization in guinea pigs. Information on the human health effects associated with exposure to 2-butoxyethanol is limited. However, case studies of individuals who had attempted suicide by ingest ing 2-butoxyethanol-containing cleaning solutions suffered poisoning with symp toms such as hemoglobinuria, erythropenia, and hypotension, metabolic acidosis, shock, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and albuminuria, hepatic disorders and hematuria.
Health Hazard
Vapors irritate eyes and nose. Ingestion or skin contact causes headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness.
Potential Exposure
2-Butoxy ethanol is a colorless liquid with a mild, ether like odor. Molecular weight 5 118.20; Specific gravity (H2O:1) 5 0.90; boiling point 5 171C; freezing/ melting point 5 274.8C; vapor pressure 5 0.8 mmHg @ 20C; Relative vapor density (air 5 1) 5 4.1; Flash point = 61C (cc); Autoignition temperature = 238C
Fire Hazard
Combustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. Substance may be transported in a molten form.
First aid
If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit. Medical observation is recommended for 24 to 48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy
Incompatibilities
May form explosive mixture with air. Can form unstable and explosive peroxides; check for peroxides prior to distillation; render harmless if positive. Decomposes, producing toxic fumes. Violent reaction with strong caustics and strong oxidizers. Attacks some coatings, plastics and rubber. Attacks metallic aluminum at high temperatures.
Physical properties
Clear, colorless, oily liquid with a mild, ether-like odor. Experimentally determined detection and recognition odor threshold concentrations were 500 μg/m3 (100 ppbv) and 1.7 mg/m3 (350 ppbv), respectively (Hellman and Small, 1974). An odor threshold concentration of 580 ppbv was reported by Nagata and Takeuchi (1990).
Uses
Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE) is used as a solvent for nitrocellulose, resins, oil, and grease, and in dry cleaning.
Uses
Ethylene glycol n-butyl ether (EB) is used widely as a coupling solvent because of its superior coupling efficiency and excellent solvency for resins.
Uses
Solvent for nitrocellulose, resins, grease, oil, albumin; dry cleaning.
Synthesis Reference(s)
The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 45, p. 1095, 1980 DOI: 10.1021/jo01294a034
Chemical Reactivity
Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.
Environmental Fate
Biological. Bridié et al. (1979) reported BOD and COD values of 0.71 and 2.20 g/g using filtered effluent from a biological sanitary waste treatment plant. These values were determined using a standard dilution method at 20 °C for a period of 5 d. When a sewage seed was used in a separate screening test, a BOD value of 0.20 g/g was obtained. The ThOD for 2-butoxyethanol is 2.31 g/g.
Chemical/Physical. At an influent concentration of 1,000 mg/L, treatment with GAC resulted in an effluent concentration of 441 mg/L. The adsorbability of the carbon used was 112 mg/g carbon (Guisti et al., 1974).
Purification Methods
Peroxides can be removed by refluxing with anhydrous SnCl2 or by passage under slight pressure through a column of activated alumina. Dry with anhydrous K2CO3 and CaSO4, filter and distil, or reflux with, and distil from NaOH. [Beilstein 1 IV 2380.]
Toxicity evaluation
The principal toxicological effect observed upon overexposure to EGBE is the destruction of red blood cells (RBCs) (i.e., hemolysis). BAA, the predominant oxidative metabolite of EGBE, appears responsible for this hemolytic activity. It has been speculated that BAA may interact with RBC membranes, disrupting erythrocyte osmotic balance, leading to cellular swelling, loss of deformability, and eventually hemolysis. In studies with male rats, treatment with alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors protected against EGBE-induced hematotoxicity and inhibited EGBE metabolism to BAA. Another event in the sequelae following EGBE exposures is compensatory erythropoiesis, where as a response to the loss of erythrocytes, the bone marrow increases production of young RBCs.
In vitro studies have indicated that the RBCs of rats, mice, rabbits, and baboons are susceptible to hemolysis by BAA, whereas blood from pigs, dogs, cats, guinea pigs, and humans are resistant. A number of other studies have confirmed these results in vitro, in RBCs from a large cross-section of the human population, including those with hereditary red cell disease (i.e., sickle cell and spherocytosis) and the aged. These studies indicate that human cells are not as susceptible to hemolysis as rat cells tested under similar conditions. These findings suggest that humans exposed to equivalent doses of EGBE would not be expected to exhibit the same spectrum or severity of hematotoxic-related effects as those produced in rats. In vitro experimental results also suggest that RBCs are more sensitive to hemolysis by BAA than to hemolysis by EGBE.
Waste Disposal
EGBE is destroyed by burning in an incinerator. In the laboratory, small amounts may be disposed of in the sink with a large volume of water.

Safety Data

Hazard Codes 
Xn
Risk Statements 
R20/21/22:Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R36/38:Irritating to eyes and skin .
Safety Statements 
S36/37:Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves .
S46:If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label .
RIDADR 
1986
WGK Germany 
1

RTECS 
KJ8575000

Autoignition Temperature
473 °F
TSCA 
Yes
HazardClass 
6.1
PackingGroup 
III
HS Code 
29094900
storage
2-Butoxyethanol should be kept stored in tightly closed, grounded containers in a cool area with adequate ventilation, away from normal work areas and sources of heat and sparks, and electrical equipment. At the storage and handling area, workers should use solvent resistant materials.
Precautions
Occupational workers should use minimal quantities of 2-butoxyethanol in designated areas with adequate ventilation and away from sources of heat or sparks. Whenever pos sible, fi re-resistant containers should be used. Wear appropriate protective equipment to prevent skin and eye contact.
Safety Profile
Poison by ingestion, skin contact, intraperitoneal, and intravenous routes. Moderately toxic via inhalation and subcutaneous routes. Human systemic effects by inhalation: nausea or vomiting, headache, unspecified eye effects. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. A skin irritant. Combustible liquid when exposed to heat or flame. To fight fire, use foam, CO2, dry chemical. Incompatible with oxidizing materials, heat, and flame. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes
Hazardous Substances Data
111-76-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity
LD50 orally in rats: 1.48 g/kg (Smyth)

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