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584-08-7

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Identification

Name
Potassium carbonate
CAS
584-08-7
Synonyms
PEARL ASH
POTASH
POTASSIUM CARBONATE
potassium carbonate anhydrous
SALT OF TARTAR
carbonatedepotassium
carbonateofpotash
Carbonic acid potassium salt
Carbonic acid, dipotassium salt
Carbonicacid,dipotassiumsalt
Carbonicaciddipotassiumsalt
dipotassiumcarbonate
K2CO3
Kaliumcarbonat
kaliumcarbonicum
K-Gran
Montreal potash
Pearl dust
Potassium carbonate (2:1)
potassiumcarbonate(2:1)
EINECS(EC#)
209-529-3
Molecular Formula
CK2O3
MDL Number
MFCD00011382
Molecular Weight
138.21
MOL File
584-08-7.mol

Chemical Properties

Appearance
white powder or granules
Melting point 
891 °C(lit.)

mp 
891 °C(lit.)

Boiling point 
decomposes [STR93]
density 
2.43 g/mL at 25 °C

storage temp. 
Store at RT.
solubility 
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless

form 
powder

color 
Yellow
Specific Gravity
2.29
PH
11.5-12.5 (50g/l, H2O, 20℃)
Stability:
Stable. Incompatible with moisture, acids, magnesium bromine trifluoride and magnesium bromine trichloride.
Water Solubility 
1120 g/L (20 ºC)
λmax
λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.03
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.02
Sensitive 
Hygroscopic
Merck 
14,7619
BRN 
4267587
Uses
Potassium Carbonate is a general purpose food additive and alkali. it is hygroscopic and the aqueous solutions are strongly alkaline. it has a solubility of 1 g in 1 ml of water at 25°c. it is used as a flavoring agent and processing aid, and to control ph. it is used in soups to neutralize acidity.
CAS DataBase Reference
584-08-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Dipotassium carbonate(584-08-7)
EPA Substance Registry System
584-08-7(EPA Substance)

Hazard Information

Definition
ChEBI: A potassium salt that is the dipotassium salt of carbonic acid.
General Description
An aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Density 12.8 lb /gal. Used to make soaps, other potassium compounds, in liquid fertilizers.
Reactivity Profile
CAUSTIC POTASH, LIQUID(584-08-7) neutralizes acids exothermically to form salts plus water. Reacts with certain metals (such as aluminum and zinc) to form oxides or hydroxides of the metal and generate gaseous hydrogen. May initiate polymerization reactions in polymerizable organic compounds, especially epoxides. May generate flammable and/or toxic gases with ammonium salts, nitrides, halogenated organics, various metals, peroxides, and hydroperoxides. May serve as a catalyst. Reacts when heated above about 84°C with aqueous solutions of reducing sugars other than sucrose, to evolve toxic levels of carbon monoxide [Bretherick, 5th Ed., 1995].
Air & Water Reactions
Water soluble. Addition of water evolves heat.
Hazard
Solutions irritating to tissue.
Health Hazard
TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.
Fire Hazard
Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.
Production Methods
The name potash comes fromthe traditional method of making potassium carbonate, which has been performed sinceancient times. Preparing potassium carbonate involved burning wood or other plant material,leaching the ashes in a wooden barrel covered on its bottom with straw, and then evaporatingor boiling away the water in the leachate in clay or iron pots to recover potassium and sodiumalkalis.
Purification Methods
It crystallises from water between 100o and 0o. The solubility in H2O is 105% at 0o, 127% at 60o and 205% at 135o (b of saturated solution). After two recrystallisations of technical grade material, it had B, Li and Fe at 1.0, 0.04 and 0.01 ppm, respectvely. [D.nges in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 987 1963.]
Agricultural Uses
Potassium carbonate (K2C03) in solution form can be used as a liquid fertilizer. A limited quantity of the solid is used as a non-chloride form of potassium for tobacco.
Potassium carbonate is obtained from ash. It is made by electrolysis of potassium chloride. Potassium hydroxide on reaction with carbon dioxide gives potassium carbonate. Liquid carbonate contains about 50% potassium carbonate in water. The solid product, which contains over 70% potassium carbonate is fairly expensive and is of use in only limited types of acid soil. Neutralizing caustic potash with carbon dioxide gas also produces potassium carbonate.

Safety Data

Hazard Codes 
Xn
Risk Statements 
R22:Harmful if swallowed.
R36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin .
R20/21/22:Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed .
Safety Statements 
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S36:Wear suitable protective clothing .
S37/39:Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection .
RIDADR 
3262
WGK Germany 
1

RTECS 
TS7750000


3
TSCA 
Yes
PackingGroup 
III
HS Code 
28364000
Safety Profile
Poison by ingestion. A strong caustic. Incompatible with KCO, chlorine trifluoride, magnesium. Mutation data reported. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of K2O.
Hazardous Substances Data
584-08-7(Hazardous Substances Data)

Raw materials And Preparation Products

Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)

Questions And Answer

Description
Potassium carbonate (molecular formula: K2CO3), also known as potash or pearl ash, appears as a white powder or as colorless solid crystal with salty taste and deliquescence. It can be dissolved in water to form a strongly alkaline solution. However, it is insoluble in organic solvents such as ethanol. It has wide applications. For example, it can be used as a drying agent, buffering agent and a source of potassium in laboratory. It can also be used for the manufacturing of fire extinguishers, soap, glass, and soften water. In addition, it is also used during the production of cocoa powder to balance pH. Moreover, it can be supplied to effervescent tablets which can conveniently provide potassium when there are low levels of potassium in the blood for patients caused by various kinds of factors. In industry, potassium carbonate is manufactured though first performing electrolysis of potassium chloride to generate potassium hydroxide, followed by reaction with carbon dioxide to derive the product. It is toxic upon eye contact, inhalation and ingestion. For rats, it has an oral LD50 being 1870 mg/kg. It has chronic effects on humans, causing damage to the mucous membranes, skin, and eyes.
Potassium carbonate
Chemical Properties
It belongs to monoclinic, and is white powder or granular crystal. It is easily soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol and ether.
Uses
  • Potassium carbonate can be used as an alkaline agent and dough conditioner, and can also inhibit the souring of noodles. It can be applied to pasta food. Apply it in appropriate amount according to production requirement.
  • Potassium carbonate can be used for the production of optical glass and can increase the transparency, strength and refractive co-efficiency of the glass. It can also be used in the production of welding electrodes and can prevent the phenomenon of breaking arc during welding. It can be used for the production of vat dyes and dyeing and the white discharge of ice dyeing. It can be used as the absorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. When being mixed with soda ash, it can be used as a dry powder extinguishing agent.
  • Potassium carbonate can also be used as the auxiliary material of acetone, and alcohol production and the antioxidant in the production of rubber. Its aqueous solution can be used for the scouring of cotton and the degreasing of wool. In addition, it can also be applied to the production of inks, pharmaceutical for photography, polyester, electroplating, leather, ceramic, building materials, crystal, potassium soap and medicine. Heavy potassium carbonate is mainly used as the raw material of production of kinescope glass shell and is widely used as the raw material of glass and special glass materials as well as being used for the decarbonization of chemical fertilizer.

Reference quality standards
Item Premium grade First grade Qualified II type
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) content ≥ 99.0% 98.5% 96.0% 99.0%
Chloride (KCl) content ≤ 0.01% 0.10% 0.20% 0.03%
Sulfur compounds (in K2SO4) content ≤0.01% 0.10% 0.15% 0.04%
Iron (Fe) content of ≤ 0.001% 0.003% 0.010% 0.001%
Water-insoluble content ≤ 0.02% 0.05% 0.10% 0.04%
Burning loss ≤ 0.60% 1.00% 1.00% 0.80%
Production method
The ion exchange method: dubbed 250 g/L solution and adding a small amount of potassium carbonate to remove calcium and magnesium ions. Ammonium bicarbonate solution is also prepared at a concentration 200 g/L in water. Pass the potassium chloride solution through a countercurrent into ion exchange column, to make the sodium resin R-Na become potassium type RK, wash off the chlorine ion within the gap of the soft resin; after finishing washing, put through the ammonium bicarbonate solution downstream into the resin exchange column, making the resin become ammonium type R-NH4 and obtain a mixed dilute solution of potassium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate; go through evaporation once to decompose the ammonium bicarbonate; evaporate once again to decompose most of the potassium bicarbonate into potassium carbonate; the precipitated potassium chloride crystal after cooling was filtered and removed; further go through evaporation for three times to 54°C and filter to remove the compound salt of potassium and sodium. The solution was subject to carbonation to convert the potassium carbonate into potassium bicarbonate; further go through crystallization, separation, washing, calcination to obtain the finished product. Its reaction steps are as below:
R-Na + KCl → R-K + NaCl
R-K + NH4HCO3 → R-NH4 + KHCO3
2KHCO3 → K2CO3 + CO2 ↑+ H2O
Leblanc method: Mix the potassium, coal, limestone in a certain ratio, add water and stir, wherein the potassium chloride is maintained at 6% to 8%, the sodium salt is maintained in 8% to 10% and then subject to calcination at 900~1000 ℃ to obtain the black ash. The black ash is pulverized and subject to hot water extraction. The immersion is further subject to evaporation to precipitate some part of unconverted potassium sulfate out; it was further sent to the carbonation tower for pre-carbonation after separation. Add the potassium permanganate into the carbonation solution to remove the impurities precipitate of aluminum, silicon, and iron; the filtrate was evaporated to the precipitation of potassium carbonate, sodium compound salt and impurities; the clarifying solution further undergoes secondary carbonation to obtain the crude potassium carbonate crystals; it further goes through filtering, water washing, and further calcination at 500~600 ℃ to obtain the finished potassium carbonate product. Its reaction processes are:
K2SO4 + 2C + CaCO3 → K2CO3 + CaS + 2CO2 ↑
K2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2KHCO3
2KHCO3 → K2CO3 + CO2 ↑+ H2O
Recrystallization method: dissolve the technical grade potassium carbonate in distilled water for solution purification; remove the impurities through filtration; the filtrate is further subject to concentration by evaporation, cooling crystallization, centrifugation, and drying to obtain the finished product of anhydrous potassium carbonate.
Content Analysis
To a pre-weighed weighing bottle with a plug, accurately weigh 1 g of dried sample measured according to the "loss on drying" assay and dissolve it in 50ml water. After adding of 2 drops of methyl red test solution (TS-149), stir continuously and titrate with 1mol/L hydrochloric acid titration until the solution turns into light pink. Heating the solution to boiling and further cool it down, continue to titrate to boiling until a pale pink color doesn’t disappears any more. Each Ml of 1mol/L hydrochloric acid is equivalent of 69.1 mg of potassium carbonate (K2CO3)
Solubility of potassium carbonate in water
The maximum solubility per 100 g of water at different temperatures (℃):
107g/0 ℃; 109g/10 ℃; 111g/20 ℃; 114g/30 ℃;
117g/40 ℃; 126g/60 ℃; 139g/80 ℃; 156g/100 ℃.
Toxicity
ADI does not make special provision (FAO/WHO, 2001).
LD50: 18.70mg/kg (rat, oral).
GRAS (FDA, §184.1619, 2000);
Limited use
GB 2760-2001: pasta, beverages, processing aids; take the GMP as limit.
FAO/WHO (1984): Low times concentrated milk, sweetened condensed milk, dilute cream (2g/kg when being used alone; apply 3g/kg when being used together with other stabilizers, calculated based on anhydrous matter); milk powder, cream powder 5g/kg ( calculated based on anhydride); jams and jellies, orange peel jelly (to maintain the Ph value being at 2.8 to 3.5); infant formula (according to GMP); chocolate 50g/kg (calculated based on the incorporated part from cocoa beans, cocoa nibs, cocoa liquor, cocoa cakes, etc.); cocoa powder, sugar-containing cocoa powder, cocoa nibs, cocoa liquor and cocoa cake 5 g/kg (calculated from non-fat cocoa and K2CO3 meter; can be used for the manufacture of cocoa and chocolate products).
References
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium_carbonate
https://www.drugs.com/inactive/potassium-carbonate-106.html
http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9926681

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