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107-21-1

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Identification

Name
Ethylene glycol
CAS
107-21-1
Synonyms
ETHYLENE-D4 GLYCOL-D2
ETHYLENE GLYCOL-D6
GILL 3 METHOD HEMATOXYLIN STAIN
GILL HEMATOXYLIN SOLUTION NO III
GILL'S HEMATOXYLIN NO 3
GILL'S HEMATOXYLIN SOLUTION NO 3
GILLS III HAEMATOXYLIN
HEMATOXYLIN, GILL III
HEMATOXYLIN GILL NO 3 SOLUTION
HEMATOXYLIN, GILL'S NO 3
HEMATOXYLIN SOLUTION GILL NO 3
HEMATOXYLIN STAIN, GILL 3
ZONYL FSA
ZONYL FSA FLUORINATED SURFACTANT
ZONYL FSD FLUORINATED SURFACTANT
ZONYL FSE
ZONYL FSE FLUORINATED SURFACTANT
ZONYL FSJ FLUORINATED SURFACTANT
ZONYL FSN FLUORINATED SURFACTANT
ZONYL FSO-100 FLUORINATED SURFACTANT
EINECS(EC#)
203-473-3
Molecular Formula
C2H6O2
MDL Number
MFCD00283324
Molecular Weight
62.07
MOL File
107-21-1.mol

Chemical Properties

Appearance
clear viscous liquid
Appearance
Ethylene glycol is a colorless, viscous, hydroscopic liquid with a sweetish taste. Often colored fluorescent yellow-green when used in automotive antifreeze. Ethylene glycol is odorless and does not provide any warning of inhalation exposure to hazardous concentrations. The Odor Threshold in air is 25 ppm.
mp 
-13 °C(lit.)

bp 
196-198 °C(lit.)

density 
1.113 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 
2.1 (vs air)

vapor pressure 
0.08 mm Hg ( 20 °C)

refractive index 
n20/D 1.431(lit.)

Fp 
230 °F

storage temp. 
2-8°C

color 
blue

Water Solubility 
miscible
FreezingPoint 
-11.5℃
Sensitive 
Hygroscopic
Merck 
14,3798
BRN 
505945
CAS DataBase Reference
107-21-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
1,2-Ethanediol(107-21-1)
EPA Substance Registry System
107-21-1(EPA Substance)

Safety Data

Hazard Codes 
Xn
Risk Statements 
R22:Harmful if swallowed.
R36:Irritating to the eyes.
Safety Statements 
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
RIDADR 
UN 1219 3/PG 2

WGK Germany 
3

RTECS 
KW2975000


3
HS Code 
29053100
Safety Profile
Human poison by ingestion. (Lethal dose for humans reported to be 100 mL.) Moderately toxic to humans by an unspecified route. Moderately toxic experimentally by ingestion, subcutaneous, intravenous, and intramuscular routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion and inhalation: eye lachrymation, general anesthesia, headache, cough, respiratory stimulation, nausea or vomiting, pulmonary, kidney, and liver changes. If ingested it causes initial central nervous system stimulation followed by depression. Later, it causes potentially lethal kidney damage. Very toxic in particulate form upon inhalation. An experimental teratogen. Other experimental reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. A skin, eye, and mucous membrane irritant. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidants. Moderate explosion hazard when exposed to flame. Iptes on contact with chromium trioxide, potassium permanganate, and sodium peroxide. Mixtures with ammonium dichromate, silver chlorate, sodium chlorite, and uranyl nitrate ipte when heated to 100°C. Can react violently with chlorosulfonic acid, oleum, H2SO4, HClO4, and Pass. Aqueous solutions may ignite silvered copper wires that have an applied D.C. voltage. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, water, foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
Hazardous Substances Data
107-21-1(Hazardous Substances Data)

Raw materials And Preparation Products

Raw materials
ETHYLENE OXIDE-->Water-->Oxygen-->2-Chloroethanol-->Dichloroethane-->Diethylene glycol-->PALLADIUM-CATALYSTS-->Film evaporator
Preparation Products
3-Aminophthalhydrazide-->5-[(1,3-DIOXO-1,3-DIHYDRO-2H-ISOINDOL-2-YL)METHYL]-2-FURALDEHYDE-->2,4-DIAMINO-6-MERCAPTOPYRIMIDINE-->N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-->Oxalic acid dihydrate-->4-(Hydroxymethyl)phenylboronic acid-->4-Formylphenylboronic acid-->PolyesterPolyol-->3-BENZOYL PROPIOPHENONE-->tussah silk fabric aftertreatment finishing agent-->2-cyano-2-[2,3-dihydro-3-(tetrahydro-2,4,6-trioxo-5(2H)-pyrimidinylidene)-1H-isoindol-1-ylidene]-N-methylacetamide -->2,3-THIOPHENEDICARBOXALDEHYDE-->5-Chlorooxindole-->2-Ethyl-5-methylthiophene-->Polyester Filament-->17-Ethinyl-17-hydroxy-18-methylestra-5(10),9(11)-dien-3-one-3-ethylene ketal-->4,5-DIMETHYLTHIOPHENE-2-CARBOXALDEHYDE-->2,4-DIMETHYLTHIOPHENE-->4,5-DIMETHYLTHIOPHENE-2-CARBOXYLIC ACID-->6-AZATHYMINE-->Dexamethasone-17-acetate-->21-Iodo-16-methylpregna-1,4,9(11)-trien-17-ol-3,20-dione-->Dye-fixing agent,no formaldehyde-->2-(2-Bromoethyl)-1,3-dioxolane-->Ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether-->2,3-Dimethylthiophene-->2-Phenyl-2-imidazoline-->17,21-dihydroxy-16beta-methylpregna-1,4,9(11)-triene-3,20-dione 21-acetate-->16-Methylpregna-1,4,9(11)-trien-17-ol-3,20-dione-->Antifreeze-->2-Fluoroethanol-->9-Bromo-11,17,21-trihydroxy-16-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione-21-acetate-->Ethylene brassylate-->Saponified soluble oil-->9beta,11beta-epoxy-17,21-dihydroxy-16beta-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione 21-acetate-->1-CHLORO-2-METHYL-1-PROPENE-->2-(2,4-DINITROPHENOXY)ETHANOL-->16,17-Epoxypregna-5,9(11)-diene-3,20-dione cyclic bis(1,2-ethanediyl acetal)

Hazard Information

General Description
ETHYLENE GLYCOL(107-21-1) is a clear, colorless syrupy liquid. The primary hazard is the threat to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit its spread to the environment. Since ETHYLENE GLYCOL(107-21-1) is a liquid ETHYLENE GLYCOL(107-21-1) can easily penetrate the soil and contaminate groundwater and nearby streams.
Reactivity Profile
Mixing ETHYLENE GLYCOL in equal molar portions with any of the following substances in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase: chlorosulfonic acid, oleum, sulfuric acid, [NFPA 1991].
Hazard
Questionable carcinogen. Toxic by ingestion and inhalation. Lethal dose reported to be 100 cc.
Health Hazard
Inhalation of vapor is not hazardous. Ingestion causes stupor or coma, sometimes leading to fatal kidney injury.
Potential Exposure
Ethylene glycol is used in antifreeze (especially as car radiator antifreeze) and in production of polyethylene terephthalate fibers and films; in hydraulic fluids; electrolytic condensers; and heat exchangers. It is also used as a solvent and as a chemical intermediate for ethylene glycol dinitrate, glycol esters; resins, and for pharmaceuticals.
First aid
If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit
Fire Hazard
This chemical is combustible.
Shipping
UN3082 Environmentally hazardous substances, liquid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required
Incompatibilities
Reacts with sulfuric acid, oleum, chlorosulfonic acid; strong oxidizing agents; strong bases; chromium trioxide; potassium permanganate; sodium peroxide. Hygroscopic (i.e., absorbs moisture from the air)
Waste Disposal
Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed. Alternatively, ethylene glycol can be recovered from polyester plant wastes

Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)

Questions And Answer

Dihydric alcohol
Ethylene glycol is the simplest aliphatic dihydric alcohol with chemical properties of alcohols such as being capable of generating ether, ester, or being oxidized into acid or aldehyde as well as being condensed to form ether or being substituted by halogen. Its reaction with acyl chloride or acid anhydride generally forms di-esters. Under heating in the presence of catalyst (manganese dioxide, aluminum oxide, zinc oxide or sulfuric acid), it can be subject to intermolecular or intramolecular dehydration to form the cyclic ethylene acetals, which can react with nitric acid to generate glycol dinitrate (an explosive). Ethylene glycol is the raw material for production of polyester resins, alkyd resins and polyester fiber. It can also be used as the refrigerant agent for automobile and aircraft engines refrigerant. In 1980, the glycol amount used as refrigerant agent is equal to the amount consumption for producing polyester. In addition, it can also be used for synthesizing polymers such as polyester fibers. Ethylene glycol dinitrate, when used in combination with nitroglycerine can reduce the freezing point of explosives. Ethylene glycol can also be used as the raw material of pharmaceuticals and plastics and high-boiling solvents. Industry applied ethylene as a raw material with first converting it to ethylene oxide and then hydrolyzing to produce ethylene glycol.
This product is of fire and explosion hazards. It is irritating to skin and mucous membrane with inhalation of vapors or skin absorption producing a narcotic effect on the central nervous as well as causing kidney damage. Rat, through oral administration, has a LD50 of 8540 mg/kg. The maximal allowable concentration in the workplace is 5 × 10-6.
This information is edited by Xiongfeng Dai from Chemicalbook.
Poisoning and first aid
This product is of low toxicity. Rat LD50: 5.5ml/kg~8.54ml/kg. People who is subject to oral administration by once has a LD50 of 80g~100g. The plasma concentration of ethylene glycol is 2.4g/L and can cause acute renal failure. It can be absorbed through the digestive tract, respiratory tract and skin. It can be discharged from the kidney in the form of prototype or ethanedioic acid (oxalate) from through oxidation. Glycol, after being oxidized into carbon dioxide, can be discharged from the respiratory tract.
Although ethylene glycol has a high toxicity but its volatility is small. Therefore, it is unlikely that the inhalation of it during production can cause severe poisoning. Inhalation poisoning is manifested as blurred consciousness, nystagmus and urine containing protein, calcium oxalate crystals and red blood cells. Oral toxicity in clinical practice can be divided into three stages: the first stage is mainly the central nervous system symptoms, such as the performance of ethanol poisoning; the second phase of the main symptoms mainly include shortness of breath, cyanosis, and various manifestations of pulmonary edema or bronchopneumonia; at the third stage, there may be significant renal disease, low back pain, kidney area percussion pain, renal dysfunction, proteinuria, hematuria, urine containing calcium oxalate crystals, as well as oliguria, anuria and even acute renal failure.
Patients mistakenly take it should be subject to the treatment based on the general principles of first aid for oral poisoning and can be given 600 mL of 1/6 mol of sodium lactate solution and 10 mL of 10% calcium gluconate through intravenous infusion. Patients of severe poisoning can subject to treatment of artificial kidney dialysis.
Container of ethylene glycol should have "toxic agents" mark. The product, upon heating, should be sealed, vented to prevent inhalation of the vapor or aerosol. Avoid long-term direct skin contact with the product.
Chemical Properties
It is colorless transparent viscous liquid with sweet taste and moisture absorption capability. It is also miscible with water, low-grade aliphatic alcohols, glycerol, acetic acid, acetone, ketones, aldehydes, pyridine and similar coal tar bases. It is slightly soluble in ether but almost insoluble in benzene and its homologues, chlorinated hydrocarbons, petroleum ether and oils.
Uses
Glycol is mainly used as the antifreeze agent for preparation of the automobile cooling systems and the raw material for the production of polyethylene terephthalate (the raw material of polyester fibers and plastics material). It can also be used for the production of synthetic resins, solvents, lubricants, surfactants, emollients, moisturizers, explosives and so on. Glycol can often used as alternative of glycerol and can often be used as hydration agent and solvent in the tanning industry and pharmaceutical industry. Glycol has a strong dissolving capability but it is easily to be oxidized to toxic metabolic oxalic acid and therefore can’t be widely used as a solvent. The ethylene glycol can be supplemented to the hydraulic fluid and can be used for preventing the erosion of oil-based hydraulic fluid on the rubber of the system; the water-based hydraulic fluid with ethylene glycol as a main component is an inflammable hydraumatic fluid and can be applied to the molding machine in aircraft, automobiles and high-temperature operation. There are many important derivatives of ethylene glycol. Low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (mono-uret ethylene glycol, bi-uret ethylene glycol, tri-uret ethylene glycol or respectively called as diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol) is actually the byproduct during the hydration of ethylene oxide B for preparation of ethylene glycol.
Production method
1. Direct hydration of ethylene oxide is currently the only way for industrial-scale production of ethylene glycol. Ethylene oxide and water, under pressure (2.23MPa) and 190-200 ℃ conditions, and can directly have liquid-phase hydration reaction in a tubular reactor to generate ethylene glycol while being with byproducts diethylene glycol, tripropylene ethylene gl]ycol and multi-uret poly ethylene glycol. The dilute ethylene glycol solution obtained from the reaction further undergoes thin film evaporator condensation, and then dehydration, refinement to obtain qualified products and by-products. 2. sulfuric acid catalyzed hydration of ethylene oxide; ethylene oxide can react with water, in the presence of sulfuric acid as the catalyst, at 60-80 ℃ and pressure of 9.806-19.61kPa for hydration to generate ethylene glycol. The reaction mixture can be neutralized by liquid alkaline and evaporated of the water to obtain 80% ethylene glycol, and then distilled and concentrated in distillation column to obtain over 98% of the finished product. This method is developed in early time. Owing to the presence of corrosion, pollution and product quality problems, together with complex refining process, countries have gradually discontinued and instead change to direct hydration. 3. Direct ethylene hydration; directly synthesize ethylene glycol from ethylene instead of being via ethylene oxide. 4. dichloroethane hydrolysis. 5. Formaldehyde method.
Industrial preparation of ethylene glycol adopts chlorine ethanol method, ethylene oxide hydration and direct ethylene hydration with various methods having their characteristics, as described below.
Chlorohydrin method
Take chloroethanol as raw materials for hydrolysis in alkaline medium to obtain it. The reaction is carried out at 100 ℃. First generate ethylene oxide. Then pressurize at 1.01 MPa pressure to obtain ethylene glycol.
Ethylene oxide hydration
Hydration of ethylene oxide contains catalytic hydration and direct hydration. The hydration process can be carried out under either normal pressure or under compression. Normal pressure method generally take a small amount of inorganic acid as catalyst for reaction at 50~70 ℃.
Pressurized hydration had a high demand for the molar ratio of ethylene oxide over water which is higher than 1:6, to reduce the side reaction of producing the ether with the reaction temperature being at 150 °C and the pressure being 147kPa with hydration generating ethylene glycol.
There are currently gas phase catalytic hydration with silver oxide being the catalyst and the alumina oxide being the carrier for reaction at 150~240 ℃ to generate ethylene glycol.
Direct hydration of ethylene
Ethylene, in the presence of catalyst (e.g., antimony oxide TeO2 with palladium catalyst) can be oxidized in acetic acid solution to generate monoacetate ester or diacetate ester with further hydrolysis obtaining the ethylene glycol.
The above several methods takes ethylene oxide hydration as good with simple process and is suitable for industrialization.
Category
Flammable liquid.
Toxicity grading
Poisoning.
Acute toxicity
Oral-rat LD50: 4700 mg/kg; Oral-Mouse LD50: 5500 mg/kg.
Irritation data
Skin-rabbit 555 mg Mild; Eyes-rabbit 500 mg/24 hr mild.
Hazardous characteristics of explosive
Being mixed with air can be explosive.
Flammability and hazard characteristics
It is combustible in case of fire, high temperature and strong oxidant with burning releasing smoke irritation.
Storage characteristics
Treasury: ventilation, low-temperature and dry.
Extinguishing agents
Foam, carbon dioxide, water spray, sand.
Professional standards
TWA 60 mg/m³; STEL 120 mg/m3.

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