ETHYLENE GLYCOL(107-21-1) is a clear, colorless syrupy liquid. The primary hazard is the threat to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit its spread to the environment. Since ETHYLENE GLYCOL(107-21-1) is a liquid ETHYLENE GLYCOL(107-21-1) can easily penetrate the soil and contaminate groundwater and nearby streams.
Mixing ETHYLENE GLYCOL in equal molar portions with any of the following substances in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase: chlorosulfonic acid, oleum, sulfuric acid, [NFPA 1991].
Questionable carcinogen. Toxic by ingestion and inhalation. Lethal dose reported to be
Inhalation of vapor is not hazardous. Ingestion causes stupor or coma, sometimes leading to fatal kidney injury.
Ethylene glycol is used in antifreeze
(especially as car radiator antifreeze) and in production of
polyethylene terephthalate fibers and films; in hydraulic
fluids; electrolytic condensers; and heat exchangers. It is
also used as a solvent and as a chemical intermediate for
ethylene glycol dinitrate, glycol esters; resins, and for
This chemical is combustible.
If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any
contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least
15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek
medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the
skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately
with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately.
If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure,
begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if
heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical
facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce
vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit
UN3082 Environmentally hazardous substances,
liquid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required
Reacts with sulfuric acid, oleum, chlorosulfonic acid; strong oxidizing agents; strong bases; chromium trioxide; potassium permanganate; sodium peroxide.
Hygroscopic (i.e., absorbs moisture from the air)
Ethylene glycol was first synthesized in 1859; however, it did
not become a public health concern until after World War II. In
fact, the first published series of deaths from ethylene glycol
consumption involved 18 soldiers who drank antifreeze as
a substitute for ethanol. Despite the early recognition that
patients who drank ethanol in addition to ethylene glycol had
prolonged survival when compared to those drinking ethylene
glycol alone, antidotal treatment of ethylene glycol toxicity
with ethanol was not evaluated until the 1960s. Today,
ethylene glycol poisoning continues to be a public health
problem, particularly in the southeastern United States. In
2009, US poison control centers received 5282 calls about
possible ethylene glycol exposures, and the toxicology
community believes these exposures are underreported.
Dissolve or mix the material
with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal,
state, and local environmental regulations must be
observed. Alternatively, ethylene glycol can be recovered
from polyester plant wastes
ChEBI: A 1,2-glycol compound produced via reaction of ethylene oxide with water.
Ethylene glycol is prepared by the hydration of ethylene oxide:
This reaction is carried out in a manner comparable to that described for the
preparation of propylene glycol from propylene oxide .
Ethylene glycol is a colourless liquid, b.p. 197¡ãC.
Historically, ethylene glycol has been manufactured by
hydrolyzing ethylene oxide. Presently, it is also produced
commercially by oxidizing ethylene in the presence of acetic
acid to form ethylene diacetate, which is hydrolyzed to the
glycol, and acetic acid is recycled in the process .
Glycol reacts (1) with sodium to form sodium glycol, CH2OH · CH2ONa, and disodium glycol, CH2ONa·CH2ONa; (2) with phosphorus pentachloride to form ethylene dichloride, CH2Cl·CH2Cl (3) with carboxy acids to form mono- and disubstituted esters, e.g., glycol monoacetate, CH2OH·CH2OOCCH3, glycol diacetate, CH3COOCH2 · CH2OOCCH3; (4) with nitric acid (with sulfuric acid), to form glycol mononitrate, CH2OH·CH2ONO2, glycol dinitrate, CH2ONO2 · CH2ONO2; (5) with hydrogen chloride, heated, to form glycol chlorohydrin (ethylene chlorohydrin, CH2OH·CHCl); (6) upon regulated oxidation to form glycollic aldehyde, CH2OH·CHO, glyoxal, CHO · CHO, glycollic acid, CH2OH·COOH, glyoxalic acid, CHO·COOH, oxalic acid, COOH·COOH.
Flammability and Explosibility
Ethylene glycol is a low toxicity molecule and is used for embryo cryopreservation in many domestic animals.Ethylene glycol 5M solution is an additive screening solution of Additive Screening Kit. Additive Screen kit is designed to allow rapid and convenient evaluation of additives and their ability to influence the crystallization of the sample. The Additive Kit provides a tool for refining crystallization conditions.
Ethylene glycol is considered an inert ingredient in pesticides. It
typically enters the environment through waste streams after
use of deicing products, where it is highly mobile in soil and
contaminates groundwater. Ethylene glycol is considered
‘readily biodegradable.’ It biodegrades relatively quickly; its
half-life (t1/2) is 2–12 days in soil.
Ethylene glycol is biodegraded in water under both aerobic
and anaerobic conditions within a day to a few weeks. In the
atmosphere, ethylene glycol photochemically degrades with
a t1/2 of approximately 2 days.
It is very hygroscopic, and also likely to contain higher diols. Dry it with CaO, CaSO4, MgSO4 or NaOH and distil it under vacuum. Dry further by reaction with sodium under nitrogen, reflux for several hours and distil. The distillate is then passed through a column of Linde type 4A molecular sieves and finally distil under nitrogen, from more molecular sieves. Then fractionally distil it. [Beilstein 1 IV 2369.]
Ethylene glycol has low toxicity but it is metabolized to
a variety of toxic metabolites. Ethylene glycol and glycolaldehyde
have an intoxicating effect on the central nervous
system that can lead to ataxia, sedation, coma, and respiratory
arrest similar to ethanol intoxication. However, the profound
metabolic acidosis reported in toxicity is secondary to accumulation
of acid metabolites, especially glycolic acid. The
oxalic acid metabolite complexes with calcium and precipitates
as calcium oxalate crystals in the renal tubules, leading to acute
renal injury. Further, oxalate’s ability to chelate calcium may
cause clinically relevant serum hypocalcemia.