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Calcium hypochlorite

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Calcium hypochlorite Basic information
Calcium hypochlorite Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:100 °C(lit.)
  • Density 2.35 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
  • storage temp. Store at +15°C to +25°C.
  • solubility 200g/l (decomposition)
  • form Tablets
  • Specific Gravity2.35
  • color White to off-white or faint green
  • OdorChlorine-like odor
  • Water Solubility 200 g/L (20 ºC) (dec.)
  • Merck 14,1674
  • Stability:Stability Strong oxidizer - contact with flammable material may lead to fire. Incompatible with water, reducing agents, combustible material, phenol.
  • CAS DataBase Reference7778-54-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemCalcium hypochlorite (7778-54-3)
Safety Information
Calcium hypochlorite Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionCalcium hypochlorite (molecular formula: Ca (ClO)2) is a kind of inorganic compound. It appears as a white granular solid with chlorine odor. Though it is relatively stable and non-combustible, it will accelerate the burning of combustible materials. Sodium hypochlorite solid is generally not commercialized. Instead, it is highly soluble in water and can be formulated into various concentrations. The resulting sodium hypochlorite solutions appears as clear, green to yellow liquids. It has two major applications. One is sanitation. For this purpose, it is primarily used as bleaching agent or disinfectants to sanitize publish swimming pools as well as disinfect drinking water. It is also used in the disinfection of surfaces and equipment of kitchen and bathroom. Moreover, it can be used as algaecides, herbicide and laundry detergents. Another major application is in organic chemistry. It can act as a general oxidizing agent for the cleavage of glycols, keto acids to obtain fragmented aldehydes or carboxylic acid. It can also be used for the manufacture of chloroform. Calcium hypochlorite can be manufactured through the reaction between limes (Ca(OH)2) with chlorine gas to give various concentrations of products. Calcium hypochlorite is toxic. Its solution can emit toxic gases such as chlorine. Inhalation can lead to olfactory fatigue and irritation on the lung airway. It is also irritating to the skin and eye upon contact. Ingestion of it can cause vomiting and corrosive injury to the gastrointestinal tract.
  • References
  • DescriptionCalcium hypochlorite, is an oxysalt; it is a crystalline solid and an oxidizer that decomposes at 212°F (100°C). Calcium hypochlorite is a dangerous fire risk in contact with organic materials. It is also a common swimming pool chlorinator and decomposes in contact with water, releasing chlorine into the water. If a container of calcium hypochlorite becomes wet in storage, the result can be an exothermic reaction. If combustible materials are present, a fire may occur. The chlorine in the compound will be released by contact with the water and will then accelerate the combustion process. The four-digit UN identification number for dry mixtures with not less than 39% available chlorine (8.8% oxygen) is 1748; hydrated with not less than 5.5% and not more than 10% water, the number is 2880; mixtures that are dry, with not less than 10% but not more than 39% available chlorine, are numbered as 2208. The NFPA 704 designation for calcium hypochlorite is health 3, flammability 0, and reactivity 1. The white section at the bottom of the diamond has the prefix “oxy,” indicating an oxidizer. The primary uses are as a bleaching agent, a swimming pool disinfectant, a fungicide, in potable-water purification, and as a deodorant.
  • Chemical PropertiesCalcium hypochlorite, Ca(OCl)2.4H20, also known as calcium oxychloride, chlorinated lime, and bleach, is a deliquescent white powder used as a bleaching agent in the textile and pulp industries and as a disinfectant. It contains 60 to 65% available chlorine,
  • Chemical PropertiesCalcium hypochlorite is a white powder, granule, or pellets with a strong chlorine-like odor.
  • Physical propertiesWhite crystalline solid; density 2.35 g/cm3; decomposes when heated to 100°C; soluble in water and alcohol (with decomposition).
  • UsesBleaching powder is actually a mixture of calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2) and the basic chloride CaCl2, H2O with some slaked lime, Ca(OH)2. The product is generally called “bleaching powder”. It consists of a mixture of calcium chloride (CaCl2), calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2), and calcium chloride hypochlorite (CaCl(OCl)). Ca(ClO)2 is used in industrial wastewater treatment, sanitation and cleaning, epidemic prevention and household sanitation facilities, as well as for disinfection and sterilization of swimming pools, drinking water, cleaning vegetables, and sanitizing fishponds.
    Calcium hypochlorite has been used for bleaching of cotton, hemp, fiber, pulp and starch, disinfection of surfaces, and as a sterilant for water treatment. It has also been proposed as a solid fire extinguisher.
  • UsesBleaching of wood pulp, linen, cotton, straw, oils, soaps, and in laundering; oxidizer in calico printing to obtain white designs on a colored ground; destroying caterpillars; disinfecting drinking water, sewage, etc.; as a decontaminant for mustard gas and similar substances.
  • DefinitionA white solid that can be regarded as a mixture of calcium chlorate(I) (calcium hypochlorite), calcium chloride, and calcium hydroxide. It is prepared on a large scale by passing a current of chlorine through a tilted cylinder down which is passed calcium hydroxide. Bleaching powder has been used for bleaching paper pulps and fabrics and for sterilizing water. Its bleaching power arises from the formation, in the presence of air containing carbon dioxide, of the oxidizing agent chloric(I) acid (hypochlorous acid, HClO):
    Ca(ClO)2.Ca(OH)2.CaCl2 + 2CO2
    2CaCO3 + CaCl2 + 2HClO.
  • PreparationCalcium hypochlorite is manufactured by two main processes, the socalled “calcium process” and the “sodium process”. These are essentially the same as described for the Mg(ClO)2 salt method given above except that a sodium hypochlorite salt is used in one case and a calcium chloride salt in the other. The products are nearly the same. Calcium hypochlorite is manufactured by the calcium process:
    In another method developed for the manufacture of Ca(ClO)2, chlorine gas is reacted with calcium hydroxide:
    Ca(OH)2+ 2Cl2→Ca(ClO)2+ 2HCl
    In this method, it is claimed that the excess HCl is neutralized by excess Ca(OH)2 to form CaCl2. The product is said to be more “neutral” chemically and more stable than that produced by other methods.
  • ReactionsAs strong oxidant, calcium hypochlorite may react with vigor in combination with carbon compounds, and combination with finely divided carbon particles forms an explosive mixture. Reaction with acetylene leads to creation of explosive chloroacetylenes. Contact with organic matter, oil, hydrocarbons and alcohols such as methanol or ethanol may cause a violent explosion. Reaction with nitromethane causes a delayed violent reaction. Organic sulfur compounds such as sulfides react by self-ignition and explosion. Iron oxide in metal containers catalyze oxygen-evolving decomposition of the oxidant.
  • General DescriptionCalcium hypochlorite, hydrated is a white granular solid or tablets compressed from the granules having an odor of chlorine. Calcium hypochlorite is noncombustible, but Calcium hypochlorite will accelerate the burning of combustible materials. Calcium hypochlorite is decomposed by water with evolution of chlorine gas and heat. Prolonged exposure to fire or heat may result in the vigorous decomposition of the material and rupture of the container. Material containing less than 39% available chlorine may undergo reactions as described above though Calcium hypochlorite may take longer to initiate, and the resulting reactions may not be as vigorous. Calcium hypochlorite is used for water purification, disinfectant for swimming pools, for bleaching paper and textiles, and for many other uses.
  • Reactivity ProfileCALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE is a powerful oxidizing agent, particularly in the presence of water or at higher temperature as Calcium hypochlorite decomposes to release oxygen and chlorine gases. As strong oxidant Calcium hypochlorite may react with vigor in combination with carbon, especially finely divided is explosive; acetylene, leads to creation of explosive chloroacetylenes; organic matter, oil, hydrocarbons; alcohols may cause explosion, methanol, ethanol, etc.; nitromethane caused delayed violent reaction; organic sulfur compounds, sulfides tend toward ignition and sometimes explosion; with iron oxide in metal containers catalyze oxygen evolving decomposition of the oxidant. Calcium hypochlorite forms highly explosive NCl3 on contact with urea. Produces highly toxic gaseous chlorine gas when heated or on contact with acids [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 1905]. Mixture of damp sulfur with hypochlorite caused a violent reaction, that ejected molten sulfur, Chem Eng. News, 1965, 46(29), 6.
  • HazardDangerous fire risk in contact with organic materials.
  • Health HazardInhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
  • Fire HazardThese substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. Some may decompose explosively when heated or involved in a fire. May explode from heat or contamination. Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard.
  • Industrial usesCalcium hypochlorite Ca(OCl)2 can be found in swimming pool disinfectants, in bleaching agents, in deodorants and in fungicides.
  • ShippingUN1748 Calcium hypochlorite, dry or Calcium hypochlorite mixtures dry with .39% available chlorine (8.8% available oxygen), Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1- Oxidizer. UN2208 Calcium hypochlorite mixtures, dry, with .10% but not .39% available chlorine, Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer. UN2880 Calcium hypochlorite, hydrated or Calcium hypochlorite, hydrated mixtures, with not ,5.5% but not .16% water, Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer
  • IncompatibilitiesA powerful oxidizer. Decomposes in heat or sunlight; becomes explosive above 100C/212F. Incompatible with strong acids; water and other forms of moisture, reducing agents; combustible materials; all other chemicals, especially acetylene, aniline and all other amines, anthracene, carbon tetrachloride, iron oxide, manganese oxide, mercaptans, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether, nitromethane, organic matter; organic sulfides, phenol, 1-propanethiol, propyl mercaptan, sulfur, turpentine, organic sulfur compounds. Attacks various metals, releasing flammable hydrogen gas.
  • Waste DisposalDissolve the material in water and add to a large volume of concentrated reducing agent solution, then acidify the mixture with H2SO4. When reduction is complete, soda ash is added to make the solution alkaline. The alkaline liquid is decanted from any sludge produced, neutralized, and diluted before discharge to a sewer or stream. The sludge is landfilled
Calcium hypochlorite Preparation Products And Raw materials
Calcium hypochlorite(7778-54-3)Related Product Information
Calcium hypochloriteSupplierMore
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  • Products Intro:Product Name:calcium hypochlorite