Lactose Chemical Properties
- Melting point:222.8°C
- Boiling point:397.76°C (rough estimate)
- Density 1.5300
- refractive index 1.5376 (estimate)
- solubility Freely but slowly soluble in water, practically insoluble in ethanol (96 per cent).
- form Powder
- color White to Off-white
- Water Solubility 5-10 g/100 mL at 20 ºC
- BRN 93796
- Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
- CAS DataBase Reference63-42-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry ReferenceD-Glucose, 4-o-«beta»-D-galactopyranosyl-(63-42-3)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemLactose (63-42-3)
- Safety Statements 24/25
- WGK Germany 2
- RTECS OD9625000
- TSCA Yes
- HS Code 17021100
Lactose Usage And Synthesis
- Chemical Propertieswhite crystals or powder
- Chemical PropertiesAnhydrous lactose occurs as white to off-white crystalline particles or powder. Several different brands of anhydrous lactose are commercially available which contain anhydrous b-lactose and anhydrous a-lactose. Anhydrous lactose typically contains 70–80% anhydrous b-lactose and 20–30% anhydrous a-lactose.
- UsesA disaccharide sugar present in milk.
- UsesLactose is a disaccharide carbohydrate that occurs in mammalian milk except that of the whale and the hippopotamus. it is princi- pally obtained as a cows’ milk derivative. it is also termed milk sugar and it is a reducing sugar consisting of glucose and galactose. its most common commercial form is alpha-monohydrate, with the beta-anhydride form available to a lesser extent. all forms in solution will equilibrate to a beta:alpha ratio of 62.25:37.75 at 0°c. it is about one-sixth as sweet as sugar and is less soluble. it functions as a flow agent, humectant, crystallization control agent, and sweetener. it is used in baked goods for flavor, browning, and tenderizing and in dry mixes as an anticaking agent.
- Production MethodsThere are two anhydrous forms of lactose: a-lactose and b-lactose. The temperature of crystallization influences the ratio of a- and blactose. The anhydrous forms that are commercially available may exhibit hygroscopicity at high relative humidities. Anhydrous lactose is produced by roller drying a solution of lactose above 93.5°C. The resulting product is then milled and sieved. Two anhydrous a-lactoses can be prepared using special drying techniques: one is unstable and hygroscopic; the other exhibits good compaction properties. However, these materials are not commercially available.
- DefinitionA sugar found in milk. It is a disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose units.
- Air & Water ReactionsWater soluble.
- Reactivity ProfileFlammable and/or toxic gases are generated by the combination of alcohols with alkali metals, nitrides, and strong reducing agents. They react with oxoacids and carboxylic acids to form esters plus water. Oxidizing agents convert them to aldehydes or ketones. Alcohols exhibit both weak acid and weak base behavior. They may initiate the polymerization of isocyanates and epoxides.
- Health HazardACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS: Lactose should be considered toxic.
- Pharmaceutical ApplicationsAnhydrous lactose is widely used in direct compression tableting applications, and as a tablet and capsule filler and binder. Anhydrous lactose can be used with moisture-sensitive drugs due to its low moisture content. It may also be used in intravenous injections.
- SafetyLactose is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations as a diluent and filler-binder in oral capsule and tablet formulations. It may also be used in intravenous injections. Adverse reactions to lactose are largely due to lactose intolerance, which occurs in individuals with a deficiency of the intestinal enzyme lactase, and is associated with oral ingestion of amounts well over those found in solid dosage forms.
- storageMold growth may occur under humid conditions (80% RH and
above). Lactose may develop a brown coloration on storage, the
reaction being accelerated by warm, damp conditions. At 80°C and 80% RH, tablets containing anhydrous lactose
have been shown to expand 1.2 times after one day.
Lactose anhydrous should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.
- Purification Methods-Lactose crystallises from water below 93.5o as the hydrate which can be dried at 80o/14mm. [Horst Recl Trav Chim, Pays-Bas 72 878 1953, Beilst 17 III/IV 3066.]
- IncompatibilitiesLactose anhydrous is incompatible with strong oxidizers. When
mixtures containing a hydrophobic leukotriene antagonist and
anhydrous lactose or lactose monohydrate were stored for six
weeks at 40°C and 75% RH, the mixture containing anhydrous
lactose showed greater moisture uptake and drug degradation.
Studies have also shown that in blends of roxifiban acetate (DMP-754) and lactose anhydrous, the presence of lactose anhydrous accelerated the hydrolysis of the ester and amidine groups.
Lactose anhydrous is a reducing sugar with the potential to interact with primary and secondary amines (Maillard reaction) when stored under conditions of high humidity for extended periods.
- Regulatory StatusGRAS listed. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (IM, IV: powder for injection solution; IV and sublingual preparations; oral: capsules and tablets; powder for inhalation; vaginal). Included in nonparenteral and parenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
Lactose Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Lactobionic acid CALCIUM GLUBIONATE DISIALYL-LACTO-N-TETRAOSE GAL-BETA1,3(FUC-ALPHA1,4)GLCNAC-BETA1,3GAL-BETA1,4(FUC-ALPHA1,3)GLC GALILI PENTASACCHARIDE LACTOSE, MONOHYDRATE DFLNNH LACTOSE [D-GLUCOSE 1-14C] 3'-N-ACETYLNEURAMIN-LACTOSE SODIUM SALT POTASSIUM LACTOBIONATE BETA-GAL-[1->3]-BETA-GLCNAC-[1->3]-BETA-GAL-[1-4][ALPHA-FUC-(1->3)]-BETA-GLCNAC-[1->3]-BETA-GAL-[1->4]-GLC ERYTHROMYCIN-13C1, LACTOBIONATE SALT CLARITHROMYCIN LACTOBIONATE ROXITHROMYCIN LACTOBIONATE Glucose oxidase CORN SYRUP Anhydrous Lactose Lactose
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