LACTITOL Chemical Properties
- Melting point:146°
- alpha D23 +14° (c = 4 in water)
- Boiling point:788.5±60.0 °C(Predicted)
- Density 1.69±0.1 g/cm3(Predicted)
- solubility Slightly soluble in ethanol (95%) and ether. Soluble 1 in 1.75 of water at 20°C; 1 in 1.61 at 30°C; 1 in 1.49 at 40°C; 1 in 1.39 at 50°C.
LACTITOL Usage And Synthesis
- DescriptionLactitol (4-o-(|3-D-Galactopyranosyl)-D-glucitol) is a disaccharide
sugar alcohol derived from lactose by reduction of its glucose
moiety. Lactitol has not been found in nature. It is about 0.4 times
as sweet as sucrose.
In vitro studies with galactosidase-containing enzyme preparations have demonstrated that lactitol is hydrolyzed only very slowly. In incubations with human intestinal biopsies, it has been shown that the human intestinal mucosa does not exhibit any significant dis accharidase activity with lactitol as a substrate. The hydrolytic activities towards lactitol and isomalt were only 1.3% of those towards lactose and isomaltulose, respectively. Corresponding exper iments with intestinal preparations of germ-free pigs and convention ally kept minipigs gave similar results. These observations indicate that lactitol is the most slowly digested disaccharide sugar alcohol. However, in vitro investigations with intestinal enzyme prepara tions provide only relative figures on hydrolysis rates. Experiments with humans and 14C-labeled lactitol during jejunal perfusion indi cate that lactitol is virtually not assimilated by the human small intestine. After passage through the small intestine, ingested lac titol reaches the bacterially colonized segments of the gut where intensive fermentation takes place. Short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate) are the major fermentation end products which are subsequently further metabolized by the host.
Lactitol is slowly fermented in growing cultures by some strepto cocci, actinomyces and lactobacilli. When fed at 25% of the diet to rats that had been inoculated with Streptococcus mutans, lactitol was about equally as cariogenic as sorbitol and significantly less cariogenic than sucrose. Test candies and chocolates sweetened by lactitol are hypoacidogenic in humans tested by plaque pH telemetry. Boiled sweets made with 100% lactitol are rough in texture owing to crystallization, and caused some gastrointestinal upsets in human volunteers. Since lactitol has only one-third the sweetness of sucrose, sweets need an additional sweetening agent for palatability.
- Chemical PropertiesLactitol occurs as white orthorhombic crystals. It is odorless with a sweet taste that imparts a cooling sensation. It is available in powdered form and in a range of crystal sizes. The directly compressible form is a water-granulated product of microcrystalline aggregates.
- Production MethodsLactitol is produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of lactose.
- Pharmaceutical ApplicationsLactitol is used as a noncariogenic replacement for sucrose. It is also used as a diluent in solid dosage forms.(1) A direct-compression form is available,(2,3) as is a direct-compression blend of lactose and lactitol. Lactitol is also used therapeutically in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy and as a laxative.
- SafetyLactitol is regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant substance. It is not
fermented significantly in the mouth, and is not cariogenic.It is
not absorbed in the small intestine, but is broken down by
microflora in the large intestine, and is metabolized independently
of insulin. In large doses it has a laxative effect; therapeutically,
10–20 g daily in a single oral dose is administered for this purpose.
LD50 (mouse, oral): >23 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 30 g/kg
- storageLactitol as the monohydrate is nonhygroscopic and is stable under humid conditions. It is stable to heat and does not take part in the Maillard reaction. In acidic solution, lactitol slowly hydrolyzes to sorbitol and galactose. Lactitol is very resistant to microbiological breakdown and fermentation. Store in a well-closed container. When the compound is stored in an unopened container at 25°C and 60% relative humidity, a shelf-life in excess of 3 years is appropriate.
- Regulatory StatusGRAS listed. Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
LACTITOL Preparation Products And Raw materials
- NA ALPHA-LACTOSE 1-PHOSPHATE BARIUM SALT CALCIUM LACTOBIONATE BETA-D-GAL-[1->4]-BETA-D-GLC-1->OPR BETA-D-GAL-[1->4]-BETA-D-GLC-1->OME BETA-D-LACTOPYRANOSYLPHENYL ISOTHIOCYANATE 1-O-[BETA-D-LACTOSYL]-N-OCTADECANOYL-DL-DIHYDROSPHINGOSINE LACTOSE, MONOHYDRATE 2-CHLORO-4-NITROPHENYL-BETA-D-LACTOSIDE N-ACETYLNEURAMIN-LACTOSE BENZYL 4-O-B-D-GALACTOPYRANOSYL-B-D- 4-METHYLUMBELLIFERYL-BETA-D-LACTOSIDE LACTO-N-FUCOPENTAOSE II D-Lactose monohy POTASSIUM LACTOBIONATE 3-FUCOSYLLACTOSE LACTOSE OCTAACETATE CDH
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