ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > Chemical Reagents > Organic reagents > Fatty alcohols > (R)-(-)-1,2-Propanediol
(R)-(-)-1,2-Propanediol Chemical Properties
- Melting point:-57C
- alpha -17 º (c=neat)
- Boiling point:186-188 °C765 mm Hg(lit.)
- Density 1.04 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- refractive index n
- Flash point:225 °F
- storage temp. Inert atmosphere,Room Temperature
- solubility Miscible with acetone, chloroform, ethanol (95%), glycerin, and water; soluble at 1 in 6 parts of ether; not miscible with light mineral oil or fixed oils, but will dissolve some essential oils.
- Specific Gravity1.036
- optical activity[α]20/D 16.5°, neat
- Sensitive Hygroscopic
- Merck 14,7855
- BRN 1718872
- CAS DataBase Reference4254-14-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry ReferenceR-(-)-1,2-propanediol(4254-14-2)
(R)-(-)-1,2-Propanediol Usage And Synthesis
- Chemical PropertiesColorless to light yellow liqui
- Chemical PropertiesPropylene glycol is a clear, colorless, viscous, practically odorless liquid, with a sweet, slightly acrid taste resembling that of glycerin.
- Production MethodsPropylene is converted to chlorohydrin by chlorine water and hydrolyzed to 1,2-propylene oxide. With further hydrolysis, 1,2- propylene oxide is converted to propylene glycol.
- Pharmaceutical ApplicationsPropylene glycol has become widely used as a solvent, extractant,
and preservative in a variety of parenteral and nonparenteral
pharmaceutical formulations. It is a better general solvent than
glycerin and dissolves a wide variety of materials, such as
corticosteroids, phenols, sulfa drugs, barbiturates, vitamins (A
and D), most alkaloids, and many local anesthetics.
As an antiseptic it is similar to ethanol, and against molds it is similar to glycerin and only slightly less effective than ethanol. Propylene glycol is commonly used as a plasticizer in aqueous film-coating formulations.
Propylene glycol is also used in cosmetics and in the food industry as a carrier for emulsifiers and as a vehicle for flavors in preference to ethanol, since its lack of volatility provides a more uniform flavor.
- SafetyPropylene glycol is used in a wide variety of pharmaceutical
formulations and is generally regarded as a relatively nontoxic
material. It is also used extensively in foods and cosmetics. Probably
as a consequence of its metabolism and excretion, propylene glycol
is less toxic than other glycols. Propylene glycol is rapidly absorbed
from the gastrointestinal tract; there is also evidence that it is
absorbed topically when applied to damaged skin. It is extensively
metabolized in the liver, mainly to lactic and pyruvic acids, and is
also excreted unchanged in the urine.
In topical preparations, propylene glycol is regarded as minimally irritant,although it is more irritant than glycerin. There have been some reports of contact dermatitis associated with propylene glycol.Some local irritation is produced upon application to mucous membranes or when it is used under occlusive conditions.Parenteral administration may cause pain or irritation when propylene glycol is used in high concentration. Propylene glycol is estimated to be one-third as intoxicating as ethanol, with administration of large volumes being associated with adverse effects most commonly on the central nervous system, especially in neonates and children.Other adverse reactions reported, though generally isolated, include: ototoxicity;cardiovascular effects; seizures; and hyperosmolarity and lactic acidosis, both of which occur most frequently in patients with renal impairment. Adverse effects are more likely to occur following consumption of large quantities of propylene glycol or on adminstration to neonates, children under 4 years of age, pregnant women, and patients with hepatic or renal failure. Adverse events may also occur in patients treated with disulfiram or metronidazole.
On the basis of metabolic and toxicological data, the WHO has set an acceptable daily intake of propylene glycol at up to 25 mg/kg body-weight.Formulations containing 35% propylene glycol can cause hemolysis in humans.
In animal studies, there has been no evidence that propylene glycol is teratogenic or mutagenic. Rats can tolerate a repeated oral daily dose of up to 30 mL/kg body-weight in the diet over 6 months, while the dog is unaffected by a repeated oral daily dose of 2 g/kg in the diet for 2 years.
(mouse, IP): 9.72 g/kg
(mouse, IV): 6.63 g/kg
(mouse, oral): 22.0 g/kg
(mouse, SC): 17.34 g/kg
(rat, IM): 0.01 g/kg
(rat, IP): 6.66 g/kg
(rat, IV): 6.42 g/kg
(rat, oral): 0.02 g/kg
(rat, SC): 22.5 g/kg
- storageAt cool temperatures, propylene glycol is stable in a well-closed
container, but at high temperatures, in the open, it tends to oxidize,
giving rise to products such as propionaldehyde, lactic acid, pyruvic
acid, and acetic acid. Propylene glycol is chemically stable when
mixed with ethanol (95%), glycerin, or water; aqueous solutions
may be sterilized by autoclaving.
Propylene glycol is hygroscopic and should be stored in a wellclosed container, protected from light, in a cool, dry place.
- IncompatibilitiesPropylene glycol is incompatible with oxidizing reagents such as potassium permanganate.
- Regulatory StatusGRAS listed. Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (dental preparations; IM and IV injections; inhalations; ophthalmic, oral, otic, percutaneous, rectal, topical, and vaginal preparations). Included in nonparenteral and parenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
- rac-Tenofovir-d7 Chloromethyl isopropyl carbonate ChloroMethyl Propyl Carbonate 2,4,6,8-Tetraoxa-5-phosphanonanedioic acid, 5-[[(1R)-2-[6-[[[[9-[(2R)-5-hydroxy-2,11-diMethyl-5-oxido-9-oxo-3,6,8,10-tetraoxa-5-phosphadodec-1-yl]-9H-purin-6-yl]aMino]Methyl]aMino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-1-Methylethoxy]Methyl]-, 1,9-bis(1-Methylethyl) ester, 5-ox D-Alanine Isopropyl Ester HCl Tenofovir Tenofovir Disopropyl Ethyl Diester Tenofovir Impurity 95 Mono-POC Isopropyl Tenofovir (Mixture of DiastereoMers) Diethyl-carbaMic Acid ChloroMethyl Ester 9H-Purine-9-ethanol, 6-aMino-a-Methyl-, (S)- BroMoMethyl -phosphonic acid diethyl ester (((((1-(6-aMino-9H-purin-9-yl)propan-2-yl)oxy)Methyl)phosphoryl)bis(oxy))bis(Methylene) isopropyl Methyl dicarbonate tert-Butyl Tosylate DISCONTINUED Carbamic acid, dimethyl-, chloromethyl ester Tenofovir Related Compound 14 Ethyl L-alaninate hydrochloride Diisopropyl carbonate
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