ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > Organic Chemistry > Hydrocarbons and derivatives > Hydrocarbon halides > 1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane
1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane Chemical Properties
- Melting point:−131 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:−10 °C(lit.)
- Density 1.108
- vapor density 3.49 (vs air)
- vapor pressure 2196 mm Hg ( 21 °C)
- refractive index 1.3672 (estimate)
- explosive limit18%
- Stability:Stable. Highly flammable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, metals - use brass regulators, steel cylinders for storage.
- CAS DataBase Reference75-68-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry ReferenceEthane, 1-chloro-1,1-difluoro-(75-68-3)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemHCFC-142b (75-68-3)
- Hazard Codes F+,N,Xi
- Risk Statements 12-59
- Safety Statements 38-59
- RIDADR UN 2517 2.1
- WGK Germany 1
- RTECS KH7650000
- Hazard Note Irritant
- DOT Classification2.1 (Flammable gas)
- HazardClass 2.1
- HS Code 29033990
- Hazardous Substances Data75-68-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
- ToxicityLC50 inhalation in mouse: 1758gm/m3/2H
1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane Usage And Synthesis
- Chemical Propertiescolourless gas
- Chemical PropertiesChlorodifluoroethane is a flammable, colorless gas. Nearly odorless.
- Chemical PropertiesChlorodifluoroethane is a liquefied gas and exists as a liquid at room temperature when contained under its own vapor pressure, or as a gas when exposed to room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The liquid is practically odorless and colorless. Chlorodifluoroethane is noncorrosive and nonirritating.
- UsesPlease view www.aldrich.com/epaods regarding the EPA′s request for application information of Ozone Depleting Substances
- Production MethodsChlorodifluoroethane is prepared by the chlorination of difluoroethane in the presence of a suitable catalyst; hydrochloric acid is also formed. The chlorodifluoroethane is purified to remove all traces of water and hydrochloric acid, as well as traces of the starting and intermediate materials.
- General DescriptionA colorless, odorless gas shipped as a liquid under own vapor pressure. Contact with the unconfined liquid may cause frostbite by evaporative cooling. Easily ignited. Vapors heavier than air. A leak may be either liquid or vapor. May asphyxiate by the displacement of air. Prolonged exposure to fire or intense heat may cause the containers to violently rupture and rocket.
- Air & Water ReactionsHighly flammable.
- Reactivity Profile1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane is chemically inert in many situations, but can react violently with strong reducing agents such as the very active metals and the active metals. Can react with strong oxidizing agents or weaker oxidizing agents under extremes of temperature.
- HazardFlammable gas. Explosive limits in air 9.0– 14.8%.
- Health HazardVapors may cause dizziness or asphyxiation without warning. Some may be irritating if inhaled at high concentrations. Contact with gas or liquefied gas may cause burns, severe injury and/or frostbite. Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases.
- Fire HazardEXTREMELY FLAMMABLE. Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Will form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along ground. CAUTION: Hydrogen (UN1049), Deuterium (UN1957), Hydrogen, refrigerated liquid (UN1966) and Methane (UN1971) are lighter than air and will rise. Hydrogen and Deuterium fires are difficult to detect since they burn with an invisible flame. Use an alternate method of detection (thermal camera, broom handle, etc.) Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Cylinders exposed to fire may vent and release flammable gas through pressure relief devices. Containers may explode when heated. Ruptured cylinders may rocket.
- Pharmaceutical ApplicationsChlorodifluoroethane is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) aerosol propellant previously used in topical pharmaceutical formula- tions. However, it is no longer permitted for use in pharmaceutical formulations because of its harmful effects on the environment. It was also generally used in conjunction with difluoroethane to form a propellant blend with a specific gravity of 1. Chlorodifluoroethane was also used in combination with chlorodifluoromethane and hydrocarbon propellants. Chlorodifluoroethane may be used as a vehicle for dispersions and emulsions.
- Safety ProfileVery ddly toxic by inhalation. Mutation data reported. A very dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidzing materials. To fight fire, stop flow of gas. Can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Fand Cl-.
- SafetyChlorodifluoroethane is no longer permitted for use as an aerosol propellant in topical pharmaceutical formulations. It is generally regarded as an essentially nontoxic and nonirritant material.
Deliberate inhalation of excessive quantities of chlorofluorocarbon propellant may result in death, and the following ‘warning’ statements must appear on the label of all aerosols:
WARNING: Avoid inhalation. Keep away from eyes or other mucous membranes.
(Aerosols designed specifically for oral and nasal inhalation need not contain this statement.)
WARNING: Do not inhale directly; deliberate inhalation of contents can cause death.
WARNING: Use only as directed; intentional misuse by deliberately concentrating and inhaling the contents can be harmful or fatal.
Additionally, the label should contain the following information:
WARNING: Contents under pressure. Do not puncture or incinerate container. Do not expose to heat or store at room temperature above 120°F (498℃). Keep out of the reach of children.
In the USA, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) additionally requires the following information on all aerosols containing chlorofluorocarbons as the propellant:
WARNING: Contains a chlorofluorocarbon that may harm the public health and environment by reducing ozone in the upper atmosphere.
- Potential ExposureChlorodifluoroethane is used in refrigerants; solvents; as a propellant in aerosol sprays; and as an intermediate in the production of highly specialized fluoropolymers.
- storageChlorodifluoroethane is a nonreactive and stable material. The liquefied gas is stable when used as a propellant and should be stored in a metal cylinder in a cool, dry place.
- ShippingUN25171-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane or Refrigerant gas R-142b, Hazard Class: 2.1; Labels: 2.1- Flammable gas. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner.
- IncompatibilitiesCompatible with the usual ingredients used in the formulation of pharmaceutical aerosols. Chlorodifluoroethane can react vigorously with oxidizing materials.
- IncompatibilitiesThe liquefied gas poured into water may be violently explosive. This is due to the phase transition from superheated liquid to vapor. Chlorodifluoroethane is generally chemically inert; however, it can react violently with strong reducing agents such as hydrides and highly active metals. It will react with strong oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides strong oxidizing agents. It can also react with weak oxidizers under extreme temperatures. Decomposes in heat to form phosgene; HF and hydrogen chloride
- Waste DisposalReturn refillable compressed gas cylinders to supplier
1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane Preparation Products And Raw materials
- 1,2-dibromo-2-chloro-1,1-difluoroethan 1,2-Dibromo-1,1-dichloro-2,2-dichloroethane 1,1-DIFLUORO-1,2,2,3,3,3-HEXACHLOROPROPANE CHLORODIFLUOROACETIC ANHYDRIDE 1,1,3-TRICHLOROTRIFLUOROACETONE 1,3-DICHLOROHEXAFLUOROPROPANE Chlorodifluoroacetic acid ethyl ester Chlorodifluoroacetic acid CHLORODIFLUOROACETYL CHLORIDE 1,3-DICHLOROTETRAFLUOROACETONE 1,2-DICHLOROTETRAFLUOROETHANE 1,2-DICHLOROTRIFLUOROETHANE METHYL CHLORODIFLUOROACETATE 1,2-DICHLOROHEXAFLUOROPROPANE 1,1,1,3-TETRACHLOROTETRAFLUOROPROPANE 2-Fluoroethyl bromide difluoroethane Difluoroacetic acid
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