D-Mannitol Chemical Properties
- Melting point:167-170 °C(lit.)
- alpha 141 º (c= USP-directives)
- Boiling point:295°C
- Density 1.52
- refractive index 1.3330 (estimate)
- Flash point:290-295°C/3.5mm
- storage temp. Store at RT.
- solubility H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
- form Crystalline Powder
- pka13.5(at 18℃)
- color White
- PH5.0-6.5 (25℃, 1M in H2O)
- optical activity[α]25/D +23.3 to +24.3°(lit.)
- Water Solubility soluble
- λmaxλ: 260 nm Amax: 0.04
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.04
- Merck 14,5745
- BRN 1721898
- Stability:Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
- CAS DataBase Reference69-65-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry ReferenceD-Mannitol(69-65-8)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemD-Mannitol (69-65-8)
D-Mannitol Usage And Synthesis
- DescriptionA white, crystalline solid consisting of D-mannitol and a small quantity of sorbitol. It is odorless and has a sweet taste. It is soluble in water, very slightly soluble in alcohol, and practically insoluble in most other common organic solvents. It is prepared commercially by catalytic reduction of glucose. Mannitol occurs in small amounts in a variety of foods such as olives, beets, and celery, and in the exudate of certain trees.
- Chemical PropertiesMannitol is D-mannitol. It is a hexahydric alcohol related to
mannose and is isomeric with sorbitol.
Mannitol occurs as a white, odorless, crystalline powder, or freeflowing granules. It has a sweet taste, approximately as sweet as glucose and half as sweet as sucrose, and imparts a cooling sensation in the mouth. Microscopically, it appears as orthorhombic needles when crystallized from alcohol. Mannitol shows polymorphism.
- Chemical PropertiesWhite or almost white, crystalline powder or free-flowing granules.
- Usesinhibitor of norepinephrine and seritonin uptake, treatment of fibromyalgia
- UsesLabelled D-Mannitol (M165000). D-Mannitol is widespread in plants and plant exudates; obtained from manna and seaweeds. D-Mannitol is used in the food industry as anticaking and free-flow agent, flavo ring agent, lubricant and release agent, stabilizer and thickener and nutritive sweetener.
- UsesUsed in titrimetric determination of boric acid.
- UsesUsed with boric acid in the manufacture of dry electrolytic condensers for radio applications; in making artificial resins and plasticizers; in pharmacy as excipient and diluent for solids and liqs; in analytical chemistry for boron determinations; in the manufacture of mannitol hexanitrate. Used in the food industry as anticaking and free-flow agent, flavoring agent, lubricant and release agent, stabilizer and thickener and nutritive sweetener.
- DefinitionChEBI: The D-enantiomer of mannitol.
- Production MethodsMannitol may be extracted from the dried sap of manna and other natural sources by means of hot alcohol or other selective solvents. It is commercially produced by the catalytic or electrolytic reduction of monosaccharides such as mannose and glucose.
- Manufacturing Process250 g of glucose is dissolved in distilled water to give a solution of 48% concentration. This solution is heated to 65°C and barium hydroxide added in quantity sufficient to make the concentration of the barium hydroxide 0.2 mol/liter. The solution is agitated and maintained at 65°C for 6 hours after the addition of the barium hydroxide. It is then cooled and neutralized to a pH of 6.8 with sulfuric acid. The precipitated barium sulfate is filtered out. A quantity of activated supported nickel catalyst containing 5 g of nickel is added.
The slurry is introduced into a 3-liter rocking autoclave, and hydrogen admitted to a pressure of 1,500 psi. The autoclave is heated to a temperature of 150°C in one hour and held at this temperature for 2.5 hours more. Pressure rises to about 1,800 psi and then declines to about 1,600 during the hydrogenation. The autoclave is then cooled, emptied, and the catalyst filtered from the product. The filtrate is then concentrated under vacuum on a hot water bath to remove a part of the water.
The concentrate is taken up in warm aqueous methanol so adjusted that the composition of the solvent is 90% methanol/10% water, and the weight of the solvent is 3 times the weight of the solids in the concentrate. This solution is cooled to 20°C and held overnight. The mannitol which crystallizes is filtered out. The filtrate is concentrated on a water bath under vacuum to remove methanol and adjusted to a water percentage of 16%. The resulting syrup is viscous, noncrystallizing and nongelling, and analysis shows a PN (Pyridine Number) of 32 and essentially no reducing sugar, according to US Patent 2,749,371.
- brand nameOsmitrol (Baxter Healthcare); Resectisol (B Braun).
- Therapeutic FunctionDiuretic, Diagnostic aid (kidney function)
- General DescriptionOdorless white crystalline powder or free-flowing granules. Sweet taste.
- Air & Water ReactionsWater soluble.
- Reactivity ProfileA sugar alcohol. More closely related to carbohydrates than to other polyhydric alcohols [Noller]. Flammable and/or toxic gases are generated by the combination with alkali metals, nitrides, strong reducing agents and strong oxidizing agents.
- HazardMildly toxic; mutagen.
- Fire HazardD-Mannitol is probably combustible.
- Pharmaceutical ApplicationsMannitol is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations and food
products. In pharmaceutical preparations it is primarily used as a
diluent (10–90% w/w) in tablet formulations, where it is of
particular value since it is not hygroscopic and may thus be used
with moisture-sensitive active ingredients.
Mannitol may be used in direct-compression tablet applications,for which the granular and spray-dried forms are available, or in wet granulations.Granulations containing mannitol have the advantage of being dried easily. Specific tablet applications include antacid preparations, glyceryl trinitrate tablets, and vitamin preparations. Mannitol is commonly used as an excipient in the manufacture of chewable tablet formulations because of its negative heat of solution, sweetness, and ‘mouth feel’.
In lyophilized preparations, mannitol (20–90% w/w) has been included as a carrier to produce a stiff, homogeneous cake that improves the appearance of the lyophilized plug in a vial.A pyrogen-free form is available specifically for this use. Mannitol has also been used to prevent thickening in aqueous antacid suspensions of aluminum hydroxide (<7% w/v). It has been suggested as a plasticizer in soft-gelatin capsules, as a component of sustained-release tablet formulations,and as a carrier in dry powder inhalers.It is also used as a diluent in rapidly dispersing oral dosage forms.It is used in food applications as a bulking agent. Therapeutically, mannitol administered parenterally is used as an osmotic diuretic, as a diagnostic agent for kidney function, as an adjunct in the treatment of acute renal failure, and as an agent to reduce intracranial pressure, treat cerebral edema, and reduce intraocular pressure. Given orally, mannitol is not absorbed significantly from the gastrointestinal tract, but in large doses it can cause osmotic diarrhea;
- SafetyMannitol is a naturally occurring sugar alcohol found in animals
and plants; it is present in small quantities in almost all vegetables.
Laxative effects may occur if mannitol is consumed orally in large
quantities.If it is used in foods as a bodying agent and daily
ingestion of over 20g is foreseeable, the product label should bear
the statement ‘excessive consumption may have a laxative effect’.
After intravenous injection, mannitol is not metabolized to any
appreciable extent and is minimally reabsorbed by the renal tubule,
about 80% of a dose being excreted in the urine in 3 hours.
A number of adverse reactions to mannitol have been reported, primarily following the therapeutic use of 20% w/v aqueous intravenous infusions.The quantity of mannitol used as an excipient is considerably less than that used therapeutically and is consequently associated with a lower incidence of adverse reactions. However, allergic, hypersensitive-type reactions may occur when mannitol is used as an excipient.
An acceptable daily intake of mannitol has not been specified by the WHO since the amount consumed as a sweetening agent was not considered to represent a hazard to health.
LD50 (mouse, IP): 14 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, IV): 7.47 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 22 g/kg
LD50 (rat, IV): 9.69 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 13.5 g/kg
- storageMannitol is stable in the dry state and in aqueous solutions.
Solutions may be sterilized by filtration or by autoclaving and if
necessary may be autoclaved repeatedly with no adverse physical or
chemical effects.In solution, mannitol is not attacked by cold,
dilute acids or alkalis, nor by atmospheric oxygen in the absence of
catalysts. Mannitol does not undergo Maillard reactions.
The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.
- Purification MethodsD-Mannitol is crystallised from EtOH, MeOH or H2O and dried at 100o. [Thomson Acta Chem Scand 6 270, 279, 280 1952, Beilstein 1 IV 2841.]
- IncompatibilitiesMannitol solutions, 20% w/v or stronger, may be salted out by potassium chloride or sodium chloride.Precipitation has been reported to occur when a 25% w/v mannitol solution was allowed to contact plastic.Sodium cephapirin at 2 mg/mL and 30 mg/mL concentration is incompatible with 20% w/v aqueous mannitol solution. Mannitol is incompatible with xylitol infusion and may form complexes with some metals such as aluminum, copper, and iron. Reducing sugar impurities in mannitol have been implicated in the oxidative degradation of a peptide in a lyophilized formation.Mannitol was found to reduce the oral bioavailability of cimetidine compared to sucrose.
- Regulatory StatusGRAS listed. Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (IP, IM, IV, and SC injections; infusions; buccal, oral and sublingual tablets, powders and capsules; ophthalmic preparations; topical solutions). Included in nonparenteral and parenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Mon-medicinal Ingredients.
D-Mannitol Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Raw materialsD(+)-Sucrose
- Preparation Products1H-as-Indaceno3,2-doxacyclododecin-7,15-dione, 2-(6-deoxy-2,3,4-tri-O-methyl-.alpha.-L-mannopyranosyl)oxy-13-(2R,5S,6R)-5-(dimethylamino)tetrahydro-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-yloxy-9-ethyl-2,3,3a,5a,5b,6,9,10,11,12,13,14,16a,16b-tetradecahydro-4,14-dimethyl-, (2SPINOSADDropropizineSodium alginate(S)-(+)-2,2-Dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-methanolKonjac glucomannanDIBROMODULCITOLD-(+)-Mannose
- BETA-D-GLCNAC-[1->6]-ALPHA-D-MAN-1->OME METHYL 2,3-O-ISOPROPYLIDENE-ALPHA-D-MANNOPYRANOSIDE 2,5-O-METHYLENE-D-MANNITOL METHYL-ALPHA-D-MANNOPYRANOSIDE Kasugamycin hydrochloride ALPHA-D-MAN-[1->2]-ALPHA-D-MAN-1->OME 4-O-BETA-D-GALACTOPYRANOSYL-ALPHA-D-FRUCTOSE INOSITOL HEXAACETATE D-MANNOHEPTULOSE METHYL 6-O-(ALPHA-D-MANNOPYRANOSYL)-ALPHA-D-MANNOPYRANOSIDE 1,2,3,4-TETRA-O-ACETYL-6-DIPHENYLPHOSPHORYL-BETA-D-MANNOPYRANOSE D-Mannose BROWNSUGAR TATM D-Mannitol MANNITOL SALT AGAR D(+)-GLUCOSE MONOHYDRATE Sucrose
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