Tylosin Chemical Properties
- Melting point:135-137°C
- alpha D25 -46° (c = 2 in methanol)
- Boiling point:796.05°C (rough estimate)
- Density 1.1424 (rough estimate)
- refractive index 1.5280 (estimate)
- storage temp. 2-8°C
- pkapKa 7.73(H2O t = 25 I = 0.167) (Uncertain)
- Water Solubility H2O: soluble 50 mg/mL
- Stability:Solutions are stable at pH 4-9 (most stable at pH 7);
Below pH 4 tylosin B (desmycosin) is formed as a result of acid hydrolysis;
In neutral and alkaline pH – tylosin aldol (TAD) is formed together with polar degradation products of unknown identity;
When tylosin solution is exposed to daylight, a photodegradation product - isotylosin A (isoTA) is formed.
- EPA Substance Registry SystemTylosin (1401-69-0)
- Hazard Codes Xn,N
- Risk Statements 42/43-50
- Safety Statements 36-61-45-36/37-22
- HS Code 2941906000
- Hazardous Substances Data1401-69-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
- ToxicityTylosin base and its salts were shown to be of low acute oral toxicity with LD50 values in excess 5000 mg/kg bw in the rat and mouse and greater than 800 mg/kg bw in the dog.
Tylosin Usage And Synthesis
- DescriptionOccupational exposure concerns farmers, breeders, animal-feed workers and veterinarians.
- Chemical PropertiesOff-White to Pale Yellow Solid.
Tylosin is a macrolide antibiotic which is active against certain Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive mycoplasmas. It consists predominantly of tylosin(factor A), but varying amounts of desmycosin (factor B), macrocin (factor C) and relomycin(factor D) may also be present, depending on the manufacturing source. Most of themicrobiological activity resides with tylosin factor A.
Tylosin is a weak organic base with a high degree of lipid solubility, thus it is well distributed to the organs and tissues of animals (Burrows, 1980).
Tylosin is used in pigs, cattle and poultryfor the treatment of conditions caused by sensitive organisms. It may be administered by oral orparenteral routes. Tylosin is not used in human medicine.
- Usesparamagnetic agent
- UsesTylosin is a 16-membered macrocyclic lactone isolated from Streptomyces fradiae in 1961. Tylosin has broad spectrum antibacterial activity and was developed as a veterinary pharmaceutical for treatment of bacterial infections in a range of domestic animals . Tylosin acts by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit resulting in the inhibition of protein synthesis in bacteria.
- UsesMacrolide antibiotic isolated from a strain of Streptomycetes fradiae found in soil from Thailand. Antibacterial.
- DefinitionChEBI: A macrolide antibiotic that is tylonolide having mono- and diglycosyl moieties attached to two of its hydroxy groups. It is found naturally as a fermentation product of Streptomyces fradiae.
- IndicationsIn cattle, tylosin is used for treatment of BRD caused by Mannheimia, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni (formerly Haemophilus somnus). It is used for interdigital necrobacillosis (foot rot) in cattle caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum or Bacteroides melaninogenicus. In pigs, it is used for treatment of swine arthritis caused by Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, swine pneumonia caused by Pasteurella spp., swine erysipelas caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, swine dysentery associated with Serpulina (Treponema) hyodysenteriae, and proliferative enteropathy caused by L. intracellularis. For treatment in pigs, it is also added to feed (Type A–medicated feed article) or drinking water. In small animals, it is used for gram-positive soft tissue and skin infections. However, the most common use in dogs is for treatment of diarrhea, referred to as antibiotic-responsive diarrhea, that has not responded to other treatments. The etiology of the diarrhea is not known but may be caused by Clostridium or Camphylobacter. For this use, the powdered formulation (swine formulation) is most often added to food daily for maintenance.
- brand nameTylan (Lilly).
- Contact allergensTylosin is a macrolid antibiotic used in veterinary medicine. Occupational exposure concerns farmers, breeders, animal feed workers, and veterinarians.
- Mechanism of actionTylosin is a 16-membered macrolide approved for therapy of a variety of infections in pigs, cattle, dogs, and poultry (see indications below). It is formulated as tylosin tartrate or tylosin phosphate. Like other macrolide antibiotics, tylosin inhibits bacteria by binding to the 50S ribosome and inhibiting protein synthesis. Spectrum of activity is limited primarily to gram-positive aerobic bacteria. Clostridium and Campylobacter are usually sensitive. The spectrum also includes the bacteria that cause BRD. Escherichia coli and Salmonella are resistant. In pigs, Lawsonia intracellularis is sensitive.
- Side effectsTylosin may cause diarrhea in some animals. However, oral treatment for colitis in dogs has been administered for several months with safety. Skin reactions have been observed in pigs. Oral administration to horses has been fatal.
- Safety ProfilePoison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx. See also TnOSIN HYDROCHLORIDE.
- Veterinary Drugs and TreatmentsAlthough the injectable form of tylosin is approved for use in dogs
and cats, it is rarely used parenterally in those species. Oral tylosin
is sometimes recommended for the treatment of chronic colitis in
small animals (see Doses), but controlled studies documenting its
efficacy have not been performed.
Tylosin is also used clinically in cattle and swine for infections caused by susceptible organisms.
- Solubility in organicssoluble in lower alcohols, esters, ketones,chlorinated hydrocarbons, benzene, ether, chloroform.
Tylosin Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Pleuromulin Tiamulin TYLOSIN.TARTRATE SOLUTIONSTERILE TYLOSIN PHOSPHATE FOR PEAK IDENTIFICATION 25 ML TYLOSIN.TARTRATE SOLUTIONSTERILE TYLOSIN TARTRATE - REFERENCE SPECTRUM TYLOSIN HEMITARTRATE DIHYDRATE Tylosin, 4A-O-de(2,6-dideoxy-3-C-methyl-.alpha.-L-ribo-hexopyranosyl)-20-deoxo-20-(3R,5S)-3,5-dimethyl-1-piperidinyl-,4A-O-De(2,6-dideoxy-3-C-methyl-α-L-ribo-hexopyranosyl)-20-deoxo-20-[(3R,5S)-3,5-dimethyl-1-piperidinyl]tylosin,4A-O-De(2,6-dideoxy-3-C-methyl-a-L-ribo-hexopyranosyl)-20-deoxo-20-[(3R,5S)-3,5-dimethyl-1-piperidinyl]tylosin Tylosin, 23-di-O-de(6-deoxy-2,3-di-O-methyl-beta-D-allopyranosyl)-, 3- acetate-4B-(3-methylbutanoate)- Tylosin hydrochloride TYLOSIN BP(CRM STANDARD) Tylosin, 3-acetate 4B-(3-methylbutanoate) TYLOSIN TARTRATE REFERENCE SPECTRUM EPT(CRM STANDARD) TYLOSIN TARTRATE GRANULATED Tylosin, (2R,3R)-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioate (salt),Tylosin tartrate,Tylosin, [R-(R*,R*)]-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioate (salt) ,TYLOSIN TARTRATE SALT TYLOSIN N/H mycaminosyltylonolide TYLOSIN TARTARIC ACID
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