ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > Biochemical Engineering > Saccharides > Monosaccharide > D(-)-Fructose
Basic information General Description History of fructose consumption Rise of fructose consumption Source of fructose Biomedical importance of fructose Fructose metabolism Fructose and diseases References Safety Related Supplier
D(-)-Fructose Chemical Properties
- Melting point:119-122 °C (dec.)(lit.)
- alpha -92.25 º (c=10,H2O,on dry sub.)
- Boiling point:232.96°C (rough estimate)
- Density 1.59
- refractive index -92 ° (C=4, H2O)
- storage temp. 2-8°C
- solubility H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
- pkapKa (18°): 12.06
- form Crystals or Crystalline Powder
- color White
- PH5.0-7.0 (25℃, 0.1M in H2O)
- optical activity[α]20/D 93.5 to 91.0°, c = 10% in H2O
- Water Solubility 3750 g/L (20 ºC)
- λmaxλ: 260 nm Amax: 0.04
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.04
- Merck 14,4273
- BRN 1239004
- Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
- CAS DataBase Reference57-48-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry Reference«beta»-D-Fructose(57-48-7)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemD-Fructose (57-48-7)
D(-)-Fructose Usage And Synthesis
- General DescriptionD-Fructose is present as a monosaccharide in fruits and vegetables, as a disaccharide in sucrose (with D-glucose), and as oligoand polysaccharides (fructans) in many plants. It is also used as an added sweetener for food and drink, and as an excipient in pharmaceutical preparations, syrups, and solutions.
In equal amounts, it is sweeter than glucose or sucrose and is therefore commonly used as a bulk sweetener. An increase in high fructose corn syrup, as well as total fructose, consumption over the past 10 to 20 years has been linked to a rise in obesity and metabolic disorders. This raises concerns regarding the short and long-term effects of fructose in humans.
Fructose is present more or less frequently than glucose in the juices of plants, fruits, and especially the honey, which is about half the solid matters. It leads to an equal amount of glucose by the hydrolysis of sugar cane and a smaller proportion than some other less common sugars. It is used, such as glucose, in the production of glycogen. It enters the body through either be eaten as such or as the result of digestion of sugar cane. It is mainly changed into glycogen or triglycerides after reaching the liver, so do not enter largely in the blood circulation. Glucose and fructose are partially inter-convertible under the influence of very dilute alkali. It is not surprising; therefore, that fructose must be converted to glycogen in the liver, which on hydrolysis yields of glucose. Dubois et al. reported that regular consumption of sugary drinks between meals increases risk of overweight among preschool children.
Fructose has been claimed to be of concern due to several factors: First, in the 1980’s, sucrose was replaced to a large extent, particularly in North America, by high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in carbonated beverages. The intake of soft drinks containing HFCS has risen in parallel with the epidemic of obesity. Second, dietary fructose has been implicated in risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD): 1. Plasma triglycerides (TG) and VLDL-TG increased following the ingestion of large quantities of fructose; 2. Fructose intake has been found to predict LDL particle size in overweight schoolchildren. 3. A positive relationship has been demonstrated between fructose intake and uric acid levels. Third, the use of fructose as a sweetener has increased. The third National Health Examination Survey (NHANES) demonstrated that over 10% of Americans’ daily calories were from fructose. These studies suggest that the relationship between fructose and health needs re-evaluation.
- History of fructose consumptionBefore the development of the sugar industry, free fructose was found in relatively few foods. Relatively few unprocessed foods contain any significant amounts of free fructose monosaccharide. Historically, these foods have been relatively hard to obtain and they typically contain fructose in conjunction with glucose and/or fibre, which has significant implications for the absorption and metabolism of the former[12, 13]. As a consequence, humans have historically had low dietary fructose intakes
- Rise of fructose consumptionFructose consumption has been escalating over the past several decades and is believed to play a role in the rising epidemic of metabolic disorders. Fructose is a simple monosaccharide that occurs naturally in fruit, though the two main sources of dietary fructose in the Western diet are sucrose (table sugar) and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Sucrose is cleaved enzymatically during digestion to produce one fructose molecule and one glucose molecule. HFCS, on the contrary, contains free fructose and glucose in varying ratios. A popular type of HFCS that is used to sweeten beverages in the United States – HFCS-55 – contains 55% fructose, 42% glucose and 3% oligosaccharides. The 1999–2004 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) show that the average daily intake of fructose in the United States is now approximately 49 g, which equates to 9.1% of total energy intake. In comparison, the average daily intake of fructose during 1977–1978 was 37 g. The highest consumers of fructose are 19–22-year-olds, largely due to excess consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Fructose consumption as a percentage of total energy intakes amongst male and female 19–22-year-olds in the 95th percentile is 17.5 and 17.9%, respectively.
- Source of fructoseIt is located in fruits and honey. Main source is sucrose; the sucrose is hydrolyzed by sucrase into fructose and glucose. It is absorbed through facilitated diffusion and can be obtained from the portal blood to the liver where it is converted to glucose.
- Biomedical importance of fructoseThis disease occurs due to deficiency of aldolase B. It has been observed in children, when children receive fructose in the diet. The vomiting and hypoglycemia is an important feature of this disease. Fructose 1 phosphate accumulates in the liver. Accumulation exhausts inorganic phosphate thereby inhibiting both glycogen phosphorylase and the synthesis of ATP. Inhibition of these reactions leads to hypoglycaemia. AMP also accumulates and metabolism leads to increased production of uric acid leading to hyperuricemia and gout. Treatment of this disease includes avoiding substances containing fructose.
- Fructose metabolismSugar is present in fruits. Sucrose is hydrolyzed by sucrase to glucose and fructose. Dietary fructose is transferred from the intestine to the liver for metabolism. Fructose is converted to fructose 1 phosphate that further converted to acetone and glyceraldehyde dihydroxy, which is further converted to glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate to enter glycolysis. In the well-fed state, fructose is converted to glycogen or triglycerides. Hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and obesity are interlinked. Consumption of fructose is increasing and is considered responsible for overweight. Several studies show that fructose increases incidence of obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Metabolism of fructose takes place mainly in the liver and high fructose stream leads to accumulation of triglycerides in the liver (hepatic steatosis). This results in impairment of lipid metabolism and enhancement of expression of proinflammatory cytokine. Fructose alters glucose-induced expression of activated acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), pSer hormone sensitive lipase (pSerHSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in HepG2 liver or primary liver cell cultures in vitro. This relates to the increased de novo synthesis of triglycerides in vitro and in vivo hepatic steatosis in fructose-fed versus glucose-and standard-diet mice fed. These studies provide new understanding of the mechanisms involved in fructose-mediated hepatic hypertriglyceridemia.
Rate of metabolism of fructose is more rapid than glucose, because triose formed from fructose 1-phosphate by pass phosphofructokinase, the primary rate-limiting step in glycolysis. Elevated levels of dietary fructose significantly elevate the rate of lipogenesis in the liver, because of the rapid production of acetyl-coenzyme A.
- Fructose and diseasesFructose and hyperuricemia
Increased intake of fructose is associated with hyperuricemia. Various studies indicate that that increased intake of sugar sweetened soft drinks and fructose is associated with risk of hyperuricemia in men.
Fructose and metabolic syndrome
It is hypothesized that fructose induces metabolic syndrome in health individuals. Study was carried out to investigate the role of uric acid in the hypertensive response. In this study, allopurinol was given to patients to lower the serum uric acid level. Ultimately it was found that excessive intake of fructose can increase the blood pressure and is responsible of metabolic syndrome but the lowering of serum uric acid level by allopurinol prevents the increase in mean arterial blood pressure.
Fructose and obesity
Fructose is almost similar to glucose because they are isomers to each other. Difference is in their metabolic pathway due to its almost complete hepatic extraction and rapid hepatic conversion into glucose, glycogen, lactate, and fat. In initial period when science was not so progressed, the diabetics patients were using fructose due to its low glycemic index. It has been observed now that obesity, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and hypertension are associated with chronic consumption of fructose. Dyslipidemia and impairment in hepatic insulin resistance are also due to increase intake of fructose in the diet. Adverse metabolic effects of fructose are responsible for hepatic de novo lipogenesis, hyperuricemia, oxidative stress and lipotoxicity. Epidemiological studies show that obesity, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders are also due to consumption of sweetened beverages (containing either sucrose or a mixture of glucose and fructose). Adverse metabolic effects of fructose are usually on high consumption and there is lack of evidence of adverse effect on moderate consumption of fructose. Study shows that free fructose is more dangerous than consumption of fructose consumed with sucrose.
Fructose and hypertension
The rise in fructose intake has been paralleled by a rise in hypertension. A study of the US population during 2007–2008 found that 29% of adults were hypertensive, compared to 11–13% in 1939 and 24% during 1988–1994[27,28]. Epidemiological studies have hinted at a link between fructose consumption and hypertension. Jalal et al. reported that excess dietary fructose (>74 g/day) in the form of added sugar was associated with higher blood pressure (BP) values in US adults who did not have a history of hypertension. Similarly, a study of 4867 adolescents found that SBP rose by 2mmHg from the lowest to the highest category of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. In a prospective study of US adults, Chen et al. found that drinking one less sugar-sweetened beverage per day was associated with a 1.8mmHg reduction in SBP and a 1.1mmHg reduction in DBP over 18 months.
- Wang, Y.M.; van Eys, J. Nutritional significance of fructose and sugar alcohols. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 1981, 1, 437–475.
- Hanover, L.M.; White, J.S. Manufacturing, composition, and applications of fructose. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1993, 58 (Suppl. S5), 724S–732S.
- Bray GA, Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM: Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2004, 79:537-543.
- Ischayek JI, Kern M. US honeys varying in glucose and fructose content elicit similar glycemic indexes. J Am Diet Assoc 2006; 106(8):1260—2.
- Faiq A. Carbohydrate metabolism. In: Biochemistry review. 1st ed. Karachi: Urdu Bazar; 2004. p. 1—100.
- Dubois L, Farmer A, Girard M, Peterson K. J Am Diet Assoc 2007;107:924—34.
- Bray G: How bad is fructose? Am J Clin Nutr 2007, 86:895-896 .
- Aeberli I, Zimmermann MB, Molinari L, et al: Am J Clin Nutr 2007, 86:1174-1178.
- Nakagawa T, Hu H, Zharikov S, et al: A causal role for uric acid in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2006, 290: F625-631.
- Vos M, Kimmons J, Gillespie C, Welsh J, Blanck H: Medscape J Med 2008, 10(7):160.
- Bray GA. How bad is fructose? Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 86: 895–6.
- Lustig RH. Fructose: it’s ‘alcohol without the buzz’. Adv Nutr 2013; 4: 226–35.
- Lustig RH. Fructose: metabolic, hedonic, and societal parallels with ethanol. J Am Diet Assoc 2010; 110: 1307–21.
- Johnson RJ, Segal MS, Sautin Y, Nakagawa T, Feig DI, Kang D-H, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 86:899–906.
- Hanover LM, White JS. Manufacturing, composition, and applications of fructose. Am J Clin Nutr 1993; 58:724S–732S.
- Marriott BP, Cole N, Lee E. National estimates of dietary fructose intake increased from 1977 to 2004 in the United States. J Nutr 2009; 139:1228S–1235S.
- Park YK, Yetley EA. Intakes and food sources of fructose in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;58(5):737—47.
- Choi HK, Willett W, Curhan G. Fructose-rich beverages and risk of gout in women. J Am Med Assoc 2010;24304(20):2270—8.
- Ali M, Rellos P, Cox TM. Hereditary fructose intolerance. J Med Genet 1998;35(5):353—565.
- Segebarth C, Grivegnée AR, Longo R, Luyten PR, den Hollander JA. Biochimie 1991;73(1):105—8.
- Angelopoulos TJ, Lowndes J, Zukley L, Melanson KJ, Nguyen V, Huffman A, et al. J Nutr 2009;139(6):1242—5.
- Huang D, Dhawan T, Young S, Yong WH, Boros LG, Lipids Health Dis 2011;24:10—20.
- Van der Meulen R, Makras L, Verbrugghe K, Adriany T, De Vuyst L. Appl Environ Microbiol 2006;72(2):1006—12.
- Akram M. Management of acute gout. Inter J Fam Med 2010;3(4):233—4.
- Perez S, Schold J. Int J Obes 2009;34:454—61.
- Tappy L, Lê KA. Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity. Physiol Rev 2010;90(1): 23—46.
- Egan BM, Zhao Y, Axon RN. Us trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, 1988–2008. JAMA 2010; 303:2043–2050.
- Robinson SC, Brucer M. Range of normal blood pressure. A statistical and clinical study of 11,383 persons. Arch Intern Med 1939; 64:409–444.
- Jalal DI, Smits G, Johnson RJ, Chonchol M. J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 21:1543–1549.
- Nguyen S, Choi HK, Lustig RH, Hsu C-y. J Pediatr 2009;154:807–813.
- Chen L, Caballero B, Mitchell DC, Loria C, Lin P-H, Champagne CM, et al. Circulation 2010; 121:2398–2406.
- Chemical PropertiesWhite Cyrstalline Solid
- Chemical PropertiesFructose occurs as odorless, colorless crystals or a white crystalline powder with a very sweet taste.
- HistoryDespite this ubiquity, fructose remained a noncommercial product until the 1980s because of the expense involved in its isolation and the care required for its handling. The development of technologies for preparing fructose from glucose in the isomerized mixture led to a greater availability of pure, crystalline fructose in the 1970s. However, the price for pure fructose was high enough in 1981 that the product was not competitive with sucrose and corn syrups as a commercial sweetener. With the entry of corn wet-milling companies into the crystalline fructose market in the late 1980s, raw material economies and enlarged manufacturing scale led to a nearly 10-fold production increase within a five-year period, making fructose prices competitive with other sweeteners for specific applications.
- UsesD-Fructose occurs in a large number of fruits, honey, and as the sole sugar in bull and human semen
- Usesfructose is a naturally occurring sugar in fruits and honey. It has moisture-binding and skin-softening properties.
- UsesFructose is a sweetener that is a monosaccharide found naturally in fresh fruit and honey. It is obtained by the inversion of sucrose by means of the enzyme invertase and by the isomerization of corn syrup. It is 130–180 in sweetness range as compared to sucrose at 100 and is very water soluble. It is used in baked goods because it reacts with amino acids to produce a browning reaction. It is used as a nutritive sweetener in low-calorie beverages. It is also termed levulose and fruit sugar.
- Production MethodsFructose, a monosaccharide sugar, occurs naturally in honey and a large number of fruits. It may be prepared from inulin, dextrose, or sucrose by a number of methods. Commercially, fructose is mainly manufactured by crystallization from high-fructose syrup derived from hydrolyzed and isomerized cereal starch or cane and beet sugar.
- DefinitionA sugar found in fruit juices, honey, and cane sugar. It is a ketohexose, existing in a pyranose form when free. In combination (e.g. in sucrose) it exists in the furanose form.
- Pharmaceutical ApplicationsFructose is used in tablets, syrups, and solutions as a flavoring and
The sweetness-response profile of fructose is perceived in the mouth more rapidly than that of sucrose and dextrose, which may account for the ability of fructose to enhance syrup or tablet fruit flavors and mask certain unpleasant vitamin or mineral ‘off-flavors’.
The increased solubility of fructose in comparison to sucrose is advantageous in syrup or solution formulations that must be refrigerated, since settling or crystallization of ingredients is retarded. Similarly, the greater solubility and hygroscopicity of fructose over sucrose and dextrose helps to avoid ‘cap-locking’ (sugar crystallization around the bottle cap) in elixir preparations. Fructose also has greater solubility in ethanol (95%) and is therefore used to sweeten alcoholic formulations.
The water activity of a sweetener influences product microbial stability and freshness. Fructose has a lower water activity and a higher osmotic pressure than sucrose. Syrup formulations may be made at lower dry-substance levels than sugar syrups without compromising shelf-life stability. It may be necessary to include a thickener or gelling agent to match the texture or viscosity of the sugar-equivalent formulation.
Fructose is sweeter than the sugar alcohols mannitol and sorbitol, which are commonly used as tableting excipients. Although fructose is effective at masking unpleasant flavors in tablet formulations, tablets of satisfactory hardness and friability can only be produced by direct compression if tablet presses are operated at relatively slow speeds. However, by the combination of crystalline fructose with tablet-grade sorbitol in a 3 : 1 ratio, satisfactory direct-compression characteristics can be achieved. A directly compressible grade of fructose, containing a small amount of starch (Advantose FS 95, SPI Pharma) is also commercially available. Pregranulation of fructose with 3.5% povidone also produces a satisfactory tablet excipient.(1) The added sweetness of fructose may also be used to advantage by coating the surface of chewable tablets, lozenges, or medicinal gums with powdered fructose.
The coprecipitation of fructose with hydrophobic drugs such as digoxin has been shown to enhance the dissolution profile of such drugs. Fructose apparently acts as a water-soluble carrier upon coprecipitation, thereby allowing hydrophobic drugs to be more readily wetted.
- SafetyAlthough it is absorbed more slowly than dextrose from the
gastrointestinal tract, fructose is metabolized more rapidly. Metabolism
of fructose occurs mainly in the liver, where it is converted
partially to dextrose and the metabolites lactic acid and pyruvic
acid. Entry into the liver and subsequent phosphorylation is insulinindependent.
Further metabolism occurs by way of a variety of
metabolic pathways. In healthy and well regulated diabetics,
glycogenesis (glucose stored as glycogen) predominates.
Excessive oral fructose consumption (>75 g daily) in the absence of dietary dextrose in any form (e.g. sucrose, starch, dextrin, etc.) may cause malabsorption in susceptible individuals, which may result in flatulence, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Except in patients with hereditary fructose intolerance, there is no evidence to indicate that oral fructose intake at current levels is a risk factor in any particular disease, other than dental caries.
- storageFructose is hygroscopic and absorbs significant amounts of
moisture at relative humidities greater than 60%. Goods stored in
the original sealed packaging at temperatures below 25°C and a
relative humidity of less than 60% can be expected to retain stability
for at least 12 months.
Aqueous solutions are most stable at pH 3–4 and temperatures of 4–70°C; they may be sterilized by autoclaving.
- Purification MethodsDissolve D(-)-fructose in an equal weight of water (charcoal, previously washed with water to remove any soluble material), filter and evaporate under reduced pressure at 45-50o to give a syrup containing 90% of fructose. After cooling to 40o, the syrup is seeded and kept at this temperature for 20-30hours with occasional stirring. The crystals are removed by centrifugation, washed with a small quantity of water and dried to constant weight under a vacuum over conc H2SO4. For higher purity, this material is recrystallised from 50% aqueous ethanol [Tsuzuki et al. J Am Chem Soc 72 1071 1950]. [Beilstein 31 H 321, 1 IV 4401.]
- IncompatibilitiesIncompatible with strong acids or alkalis, forming a brown coloration. In the aldehyde form, fructose can react with amines, amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Fructose may cause browning of tablets containing amines.
- Regulatory StatusIncluded in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (oral solutions, syrup, and suspensions; rectal preparations; intravenous infusions). Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
D(-)-Fructose Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Raw materialsCARBON DIOXIDED(+)-SucroseMolassesbeta-D-FructopyranoseHigh Fructose SyrupsAROMAINVERTOSEIRISH MOSSDEXTROSEInvertase，from yeastImmobilized glucose isomerase preparationGLUCOSE ISOMERASE FROM STREPTOMYCESHoneyINULIN, 14C-CARBOXYLATED
- Preparation Products1H-Imidazole-4-carbaldehyde4-Imidazolemethanol hydrochlorideUrocanic acidN-OMEGA-ACETYLHISTAMINE4-IMIDAZOLEACETIC ACID HYDROCHLORIDE4(5)-CYANOMETHYLIMIDAZOLE
- 1,3,4,5-TETRA-O-ACETYL-6-CHLORO-6-DEOXY-D-FRUCTOSE,1,3,4,5-TETRA-O-ACETYL-6-CHLORO-6-DEOXY-D-FRUCTOSE,1,3,4,5-TETRA-O-ACETYL-6-CHLORO-6-DEOXY-D-FRUCTOSE D-Fructose-1,6-diphoshate calcium salt d-fructose,1,6-bis(dihydrogenphosphate),calciumsalt(1:2 Diacetonefructose FRUCTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE, BARIUM SALT, TRIHYDRATE,FRUCTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE, BARIUM SALT, TRIHYDRATE,FRUCTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE, BARIUM SALT, TRIHYDRATE d-fructose2,6-diphosphate,sodiumsalthydrat D-Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate trisodium salt octahydrate ,d-fructose,1,6-bis(dihydrogenphosphate),trisodiumsal D-Fruetose-1,6-diphosphate monobarium salt D-fructose dehydrogenase from*gluconobacter sp.,D-fructose dehydrogenase from*gluconobacter sp.,D-fructose dehydrogenase from*gluconobacter sp. D-FRUCTOSE 2 6-BIPHOSPHATE TETRASODIUM,D-FRUCTOSE 2 6-BIPHOSPHATE TETRASODIUM,D-FRUCTOSE 2 6-BIPHOSPHATE TETRASODIUM FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES beta-D-Fructopyranose D(-)-Fructose Fructose sodium diphosphate,Fructose sodium diphosphate,Fructose sodium diphosphate Sucrose BROWNSUGAR 4-0-beta-d-galactopyranosyl-d-fructos d-fructose,6-(dihydrogenphosphate),disodiumsal
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