Basic information Description Clinical research Precautions References Safety Related Supplier
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Empagliflozin

Empagliflozin(trade name Jardiance) is an inhibitor of the sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2), and causes sugar in the blood to be excreted by the kidneys and eliminated in urine. On August 1, 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officially approved the drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, to improve and control blood glucose of adults. Empagliflozin is the third SGLT-2 inhibiting drugs approved by FDA. Another two SGLT-2 inhibitor drugs, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, belonging to Johnson Pharmaceuticals, AstraZeneca and Bristol-Myers Squibb respectively, are approved by FDA in November 2013 and January 2014 respectively.

Basic information Description Clinical research Precautions References Safety Related Supplier
Empagliflozin Basic information
Empagliflozin Chemical Properties
  • Boiling point:665℃
  • Density 1.398
  • Flash point:356℃
  • pka13.23±0.70(Predicted)
Empagliflozin Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionEmpagliflozin(trade name Jardiance) is an inhibitor of the sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2), and causes sugar in the blood to be excreted by the kidneys and eliminated in urine. On August 1, 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officially approved the drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, to improve and control blood glucose of adults. Empagliflozin is the third SGLT-2 inhibiting drugs approved by FDA. Another two SGLT-2 inhibitor drugs, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, belonging to Johnson Pharmaceuticals, AstraZeneca and Bristol-Myers Squibb respectively, are approved by FDA in November 2013 and January 2014 respectively. The new drug Empagliflozin’s application to FDA can be described as twists and turns. In March 2014, due to a large particle contamination incident at the empagliflozin production plant in Boehringer, the application of new drug submitted by the Boehringer-Eli Lilly Alliance was rejected by FDA. In June 2014, after reviewing the summary and material submitted by Boehring in March, confirming that the quality management and compliance system of the Boehring drug production facility was acceptable, FDA withdrew the previously issued warning letter. The Boehringer-Eli Lilly Alliance also filed an application with the FDA on June 17th.
  • Clinical researchFDA approval of empagliflozin(Jardiance) was based on the results of seven clinical trials conducted in nearly 4,500 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Compared to the placebo group, all patients taking empagliflozin(Jardiance) had a significantly lower HbA1c level. The most common adverse reactions are urinary tract infections and female reproductive system infections.
    On March 21, 2014, European Medicines Agency (EMA) Commission on Human Medicines recommended the approval of the sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor (empagliflozin) for the treatment of adult type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    On May 23, 2014, European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved for empagliflozin’s listing in Europe.
    On June 16, 2014, the Boehringer-Erya Diabetes Federation released the latest data of empagliflozin Phase II clinical trials at the 74th American Diabetes Association Science Conference (ADA2014). In a two-year study, empagliflozin or glimepiride was used in the treatment of adult patients with type 2 diabetes based on metformin. The results showed that empagliflozin(Jardiance) reduced HbA1c more significantly compared with glimepiride, while the effect of weight and blood pressure treatment are equivalent with glimepiride. Another 52-week study was conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes who were still unable to adequately control blood glucose levels with high doses of insulin (with or without metformin). The results showed that compared with placebo, Jardiance significantly reduced blood glucose levels and weight, and reduced the dose of insulin, with Jardiance or placebo on a daily basis with multiple injections of insulin. In both studies, the safety of empagliflozin was consistent with previous studies.
    FDA-related reports write that the drug should not be used in the following types of patients: type 1 diabetes, elevated blood or urine ketones (diabetic ketoacidosis), severe kidney damage, end-stage renal disease or dialysis patients. The most common side effects are urinary tract infections and female genital infections.
    Empagliflozin can cause dehydration and lead to decreased blood pressure, resulting in patients with dizziness or fainting and decreased renal function. The risk of older patients, especially those with impaired renal function and diuretics, appears to be greater.
    FDA requires Boehring and Eli Lilly to conduct four post-marketing studies: complete ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials, pediatric pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics trials, pediatric safety and efficacy trials, toxicity test for the drug (especially effect for renal function, bone and growth and development)
  • PrecautionsDo NOT use empagliflozin if:
    • you are allergic to any ingredient in empagliflozin
    • you have type 1 diabetes
    • you have high blood or urine ketone levels (diabetic ketoacidosis)
    • you have severe kidney problems or are on dialysis
  • Referenceshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empagliflozin
    https://www.drugs.com/cdi/empagliflozin.html
  • DescriptionEmpagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, was originally discovered by Boehringer Ingelheim and codeveloped and co-marketed through research collaboration with Eli Lilly and Co. It was first approved by European Medicine Agency (EMA) in May 2014, followed by the approval of the US FDA in August 2014. SGLT2 inhibitors are anewclass of glucose-lowering agents developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which have a mechanism of action that is independent of pancreatic b-cell function or the degree of insulin resistance. Consequently, SGLT2 inhibitors have the potential to be of use not only as standalone therapy but also in combination with any of the existing classes of glucose-lowering agents, including insulin. Empagliflozin selectively inhibits SGLT2, which in turn prevents glucose reabsorption by excreting excess glucose in the urine.
  • UsesEmpagliflozin is a novel, potent and selective SGLT-2 inhibitor, improves glycaemic control and features of metabolic syndrome in diabetic rats.
  • DefinitionChEBI: A C-glycosyl compound consisting of a beta-glucosyl residue having a (4-chloro-3-{4-[(3S)-tetrahydrofuran-3-yloxy]benzyl}phenyl group at the anomeric centre. A sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor u ed as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • Chemical SynthesisCommercial 5-iodo-2-chlorobenzoic acid (97) was first converted to the corresponding acid chloride, prior to subjection to commercially available fluorobenzene (98) under Friedel–Crafts conditions to generate the desired fluorobenzophenone 99 in 94% yield after isolation by recrystallization from aqueous isopropanol. The fluorobenzophenone (99) was then reacted with commercially available (S)-3-hydroxytetrahydrofuran (100) and potassium tertbutoxide in THF to afford ethereal benzophenone 101. Next, removal of the ketone functionality within 101 was achieved through the use of 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDS) in the presence of aluminum chloride in toluene to deliver diaryl iodide 102. This iodide was subsequently converted to the corresponding Grignard reagent and subjected to gluconolactone 103, giving rise to an intermediate lactol which was then sequentially treated with aqueous citric acid, methanolic HCl, and triethylsilyl hydride and aluminum trichloride to ultimately furnish empagliflozin (XIII) in 73% yield across the four-step protocol.

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