Basic information Summary Distribution Extraction method Synthetic method Biological activity Application Safety Related Supplier
Phlorizin Chemical Properties
- Melting point:113-114 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:468.89°C (rough estimate)
- Density 1.3178 (rough estimate)
- refractive index -54 ° (C=3.2, 95% EtOH)
- storage temp. 2-8°C
- Merck 14,7327
- CAS DataBase Reference60-81-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemPhlorizin (60-81-1)
Phlorizin Usage And Synthesis
- SummaryPhlorizin is the glucoside of phloretin. Its chemical name is 1- (2- (beta-D- glucopyranose oxygroup) -46- dihydroxy phenyl) -3- (4- hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone) acetone, which belongs to dihydrochlcone of flavonoid. Phloridzin mainly exists in root barks, stems, leaflets and fruit of the apple tree, it can also be found in small amounts in the plants such as compositae, leguminosae, fagaceae, ericaceae, liliaceae and so on. It has many important biological activities, such as reducing blood sugar, improving memory, anti-allergy, anticancer, etc., as well as potential use values in food, beauty and health care products and other industry.
- DistributionPhloridzin exists mainly in Malus of Rosace, it has been reported in plants such as compositae, leguminosae, fagaceae, ericaceae, liliaceae and so on, but their amount is very low. In recent years, phlorizin is also found in litchi peel, leaves of pyrus betulaefolia, cynomorium songaricum, etc. though with a small amount. However, there are plenty of phloridzin in Lilhocarpus Polystachys Rehd. In general, the Malus plants are the main source of glucoside and can be used as the raw material to extract glucoside. Phloridzin is rich in branches, leaflets and barks of the apple tree. It can The distribution of phloridzin in apple fruits concentrate in seeds and rinds. The apple branches, leaves, bark and so on contain a large number of glucoside. The distribution of glucoside in apple fruit is concentrated on seeds and pericarp.
- Extraction method
- Material crushing: The dried branches or leaves of apple trees are crushed into coarse powders (10~20 mesh or 20~30 mesh).
- Extraction: Put pulverized crude powders into round flask, add 70% methanol for reflux extraction for 3 times, add 6, 4 and 4BV liquid independently, keep for 1h each time and combine the extracted solutions; (three extracts are brown to tan respectively).
- Inspissation: The antioxidant (VC) is added into the combined extract according to 0.2% of the total weight. Methanol can be recovered by reduced pressure distillation at 60℃.( The outcome solution is brownish turbid liquid)
- Removing impurities: Add polymerization alumina according to 0.5% of weight into the recovered concentrated solution without alcohol, adjust pH value to 7.5 with calcium hydroxide, put in the conical flask, hold 30min at 60℃, obtain the liquor after filtration; (flocculent is generated at the bottom after adding polymerization alumina)
- Extraction: the extraction condensate is cooled, the ethyl acetate is extracted with 1 times the ethyl acetate 3 times and the ethyl acetate solution is obtained; (the solution is stratified rapidly).
- Concentration: the ethyl acetate extract is decompressed and refluxed, concentrated to 10: 1, and the concentrated solution is obtained.
- Purification: Dissolve the concentrated liquid with 40% methanol, filter, place the filtrate for 24h, get the crystallization after extraction filtration, obtain the phlorizin by prevailing pressure drying or reducing pressure drying. (yellow powder) The activated carbon is used to decolorize the crude products because its decolorization principle is physical adsorption without damage to the biological activity of the root bark. The activated carbon is dried in a vacuum drying box to be activated. Then the activated carbon is added into aqueous solutions of crude products. The supernatant liquid can be obtained after stir and filtration. The liquid is placed to crystalize under natural conditions and the white needle crystal occurs eventually.
- Synthetic methodThe precusor substance used to synthetize phlorizin is Malonyl-CoA and p-coumaroyl-CoA.
Firstly, we use p-coumaroyl-CoA to generate 4-hydroxydihydrocinnamoyl-CoA by NADPH; then, phloretin is synthesized by Malonyl-CoA and 4-hydroxydihydrocinnamoyl-CoA under the action of tecatone synthetase; finally, phloridzin is generated by phloretin glucosylation. The overviews, extraction methods and synthesis methods of the phlorizin are compiled by Shi yan of Chemicalbook. (2015-12-02)
- Biological activity
- Hypoglycemic effect
- The physiological relationship with plants.
- Other activities
- ApplicationIt has many important biological activities, such as reducing blood sugar, improving memory, anti allergy, anticancer, etc., as well as potential use values in food, beauty and health care products and other industry.
- Chemical PropertiesLight Yellow Powder
- UsesIt is a dihydrochalcone occurring in all parts of the apple tree except the mature fruit. Once thought to occur in pear, plum, cherry trees and other Rosaceae
- Usesinduces experimental glucosuria, antifeedant
- UsesSodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) is a high affinity, low capacity transporter abundant in the small intestine, with some expression in the kidney as well. SGLT2 is a low affinity, high capacity transporter in the kidney that accounts for approximately 90% of glucose reabsorption into the blood stream. Selective inhibition of SGLT2 is a potential strategy for reducing plasma glucose levels as a treatment for diabetes. Phlorizin is a natural product, first isolated from the bark of apple trees, that reduces plasma glucose levels by blocking renal and intestinal glucose absorption through inhibition of SGLT1 and SGLT2. It competitively inhibits the initial rate of a-methyl-D-glucopyranoside (a-MDG) uptake in human COS-1 cells expressing hSGLT1 and hSGLT2 with IC50 values of 400 and 65 nM, respectively. In HEK293T cells expressing human SGLT1 and SGLT2, phlorizin exhibits Ki values of 140 and 11 nM, respectively, at 37°C.
- DefinitionChEBI: An aryl beta-D-glucoside that is phloretin attached to a beta-D-glucopyranosyl residue at position 2' via a glycosidic linkage.
- Purification Methods-D-glucoside] [60-81-1] M 472.5, m 110o,  20 -62o (c 3.2, EtOH). Phlorizin crystallises as the dihydrate from water and causes glycosuria. [Brazy & Dennis Am J Physiol 234 1279 1978, Zemplen & Bognár Chem Ber 17B 1040 1943, Beilstein 17/7 V 177.]
- Polydatin Honokiol Phloretin Myricetin Artemisinin Arbutin 4-Hydroxyphenylacetone 4'-DEOXYPHLORIZIN phlorizin-binding protein pro-lactase-phlorizin hydrolase p-Phlorizin Phloroglucinol Propiophenone PHLORIZIN, [PHENYL-3,3',5,5'-3H, PROPANONE-3-3H]-,PHLORIZIN, [PHENYL-3,3',5,5'-[PHENYL-3,3',5,5'-3H, PROPANONE-3-3H]- AROMADENDRIN 7-O-METHYL ETHER 5-O-GLUCOSIDE SAKURANIN Phlorizin Phlorizin dihydrate
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