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lead oxide

Basic information Chemical Properties Physical Properties Uses Preparation Reactions Safety Related Supplier
lead oxide Basic information
lead oxide Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:500 °C
  • Boiling point:800°C
  • Density 9,1 g/cm3
  • vapor pressure 10 mm Hg ( 0 °C)
  • form red powder
  • color Orange
  • Water Solubility Soluble in hydrochloric acid, glacial acetic acid and nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Insoluble in water and alcohol.
  • Merck 14,5425
  • Stability:Stable. May react vigorously with reducing agents.
  • CAS DataBase Reference1314-41-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceLead(ii,iv) oxide(1314-41-6)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemLead tetraoxide (1314-41-6)
Safety Information
lead oxide Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical PropertiesLead oxide is a general term and can be either lead monoxide or "litharge" (PbO); lead tetroxide or "red lead" (Pb3O4); or black or "gray" oxide which is a mixture of 70 percent lead monoxide and 30 percent metallic lead. Black lead is made for specific use in the manufacture of lead acid storage batteries. Because of the size of the lead acid battery industry, lead monoxide is the most important commercial compound of lead, based on volume.
    Lead oxide
    Red lead is produced by oxidizing litharge in a reverberatory furnace.
    The major lead pigment is red lead(Pb3O4), which is used principally in ferrous metal protective paints.
  • Physical PropertiesBright-red crystalline substance or amorphous powder; density 9.1 g/cm3; decomposes on heating to 500°C, melts at 830°C under pressure and oxygen; insoluble in water and alcohol; soluble in glacial acetic acid, hot hydrochloric acid, and a dilute nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide mixture.
  • UsesLead tetroxide has many applications. The most important use is in paint and storage-batteries. It is used as a pigment in corrosion-protecting paints for steel surfaces. It also is used in positive battery plates; in colored glasses and ceramics; in glass sealants for television picture tubes; in propellants and explosives; in radiation shields for x-rays and gamma rays; in the vulcanization of rubber; in glass-writing pencils; in adhesives for tire cords; in foaming agents and waterproofing materials; in plasters and ointments; in lead dioxide matches; and as a catalyst for oxidation of carbon monoxide in exhausts.
  • PreparationLead tetroxide is made by heating lead monoxide in the presence of air at temperatures between 450 to 500°C. The temperature should be maintained below 500°C, above which the tetroxide decomposes.
    6PbO + O2→2Pb3O4
    Alternatively, the tetroxide may be prepared by heating a mixture of lead monoxide and lead dioxide at 250°C:
    2PbO + PbO2→Pb3O4
  • ReactionsWhen heated above 550°C, the tetroxide decomposes to monoxide, evolving oxygen:
    6Pb3O4→6PbO + O2
    Lead tetroxide reacts with dilute nitric acid forming lead nitrate and precipitating lead dioxide:
    Pb3O4 + 4HNO3 → 2Pb(NO3)2 + PbO2 + 2H2O
    The above reaction may be explained by assuming lead tetroxide as formally equivalent to plumbus plumbate having a structure Pb2II[PbIVO4] in which Pb2+ dissolves in dilute nitric acid forming lead(II) nitrate while Pb4+ precipitates out as lead(IV) oxide.
    Lead tetroxide reacts with anhydrous acetic acid at 80°C producing lead(II) acetate and lead(IV) acetate. Alternatively, the tetroxide is added into a mixture of glacial acetic acid and acetic anhydride and heated gently:
    Pb3O4 + 8CH3COOH → 2Pb(CH3COO)2 + Pb(CH3Coo)4 + 4H2O
    On cooling, the tetraacetate crystallizes, leaving diacetate in the solution. Acetic anhydride is added to react with water produced in the reaction to form acetic acid and thus prevent hydrolysis.
    Lead tetroxide can be reduced to metallic lead when heated with reducing agents, such as hydrogen, carbon, or carbon monoxide:
    Pb3O4 + 4H2→3Pb + 4H2O
  • Chemical Propertiesred to orange powder
  • UsesPlasters and ointments; manufacture of colorless glass; glaze for faience; flux for porcelain painting, protective paint for iron and steel; oil-color for ship paints, varnishes; coloring rubber; cement for glass, gas and steam pipes; storage batteries; pencils for writing on glass; manufacture of lead peroxide, matches.
  • UsesRed lead (Pb3O4) is a brilliant red-orange colored synthetic inorganic pigment used mainly as a protective priming coat for steel work rather than a coloring pigment in paints. The toxic nature of this pigment restricts its use in modern coating systems.
  • Production MethodsLead(IV) oxide, Pb2O, is obtained by action of chlorine on alkaline solutions of lead(II) oxide or acetate. The reaction is Pb(OH)3-+ ClO- → PbO2 + Cl- + OH- + H2O·PbO2 can also be produced on a lead or platinum anode by electrolysis in acidic solution.
  • DefinitionNatural red oxide of lead.
  • brand nameHiroval;Wndomethasone.
  • World Health Organization (WHO)Lead oxides and other lead salts were formerly available in topical preparations which had soothing astringent properties. The toxicity of lead salts by inhalation, ingestion and percutaneous absorption is now conclusively established and the medicinal use of preparations containing lead salts is no longer permitted in many countries.
  • Industrial usesLead oxide is used quite extensively in optical glass, electrical glass, and tableware. It increases the density and refractive index of glass. In addition, it can be cut more easily than other glasses and has superior brilliance, both of which make it good for cut glass.
    Lead glasses may be formulated with a wide variety of electrical and acid-resisting characteristics; desirable properties, such as weather resistance, electrical resistivity, etc., will depend upon the total composition of the glass.
lead oxide Preparation Products And Raw materials
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