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2-Chloroacetophenone

2-Chloroacetophenone Structure
2-Chloroacetophenone
  • CAS No.532-27-4
  • Chemical Name:2-Chloroacetophenone
  • CBNumber:CB9387386
  • Molecular Formula:C8H7ClO
  • Formula Weight:154.59
  • MOL File:532-27-4.mol
2-Chloroacetophenone Property
  • Melting point: :54-56 °C(lit.)
  • Boiling point: :244-245 °C(lit.)
  • Density  :1.324 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
  • vapor pressure  :4 at 20 °C, 14 at 30 °C (quoted, Verschueren, 1983)
  • refractive index  :1.5438
  • Flash point: :118°C
  • solubility  :Soluble in acetone (Weast, 1986). Freely soluble in alcohol, benzene, and ether (Windholz et al., 1983)
  • form  :Colorless crystals
  • Water Solubility  :insoluble. <0.1 g/100 mL at 19 ºC
  • Sensitive  :Moisture Sensitive
  • Merck  :14,2115
  • BRN  :507950
  • Exposure limits :NIOSH REL: TWA 0.3 mg/m3 (0.05 ppm), IDLH 15 mg/m3; OSHA PEL: TWA 0.05 ppm (0.3 mg/m3); ACGIH TLV: TWA 0.05 ppm (adopted).
  • Stability: :May decompose upon exposure to air or water. Incompatible with bases, amines, alcohols.
  • InChIKey :IMACFCSSMIZSPP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • CAS DataBase Reference :532-27-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • EWG's Food Scores :1
  • NIST Chemistry Reference :Ethanone, 2-chloro-1-phenyl-(532-27-4)
  • EPA Substance Registry System :2-Chloroacetophenone (532-27-4)
Safety
Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
  • Symbol(GHS)
  • Signal wordDanger
  • Hazard statements H300-H311+H331-H315-H318-H334-H335-H317-H319-H331
  • Precautionary statements P280a-P301+P310a-P405-P501a-P261-P264-P280-P301+P310-P305+P351+P338-P311
2-Chloroacetophenone Price More Price(6)
  • Brand: Sigma-Aldrich
  • Product number: 77460
  • Product name : 2-Chloroacetophenone
  • Purity: purum, ≥98.0% (GC)
  • Packaging: 100g
  • Price: $49.8
  • Updated: 2021/03/22
  • Buy: Buy
  • Brand: Sigma-Aldrich
  • Product number: 77460
  • Product name : 2-Chloroacetophenone
  • Purity: purum, ≥98.0% (GC)
  • Packaging: 500g
  • Price: $212
  • Updated: 2021/03/22
  • Buy: Buy
  • Brand: Alfa Aesar
  • Product number: A10749
  • Product name : 2-Chloroacetophenone, 98%
  • Purity: 
  • Packaging: 500g
  • Price: $229
  • Updated: 2020/06/24
  • Buy: Buy
  • Brand: Alfa Aesar
  • Product number: A10749
  • Product name : 2-Chloroacetophenone, 98%
  • Purity: 
  • Packaging: 100g
  • Price: $57
  • Updated: 2020/06/24
  • Buy: Buy
  • Brand: Sigma-Aldrich
  • Product number: C19686
  • Product name : 2-Chloroacetophenone
  • Purity: 98%
  • Packaging: 500g
  • Price: $208
  • Updated: 2021/03/22
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2-Chloroacetophenone Chemical Properties,Usage,Production

  • Description Chloroacetophenone is contained in tear gases (lacrimators). This substance has an important irritative potential but can also be a sensitizer.
  • Chemical Properties tan crystalline powder
  • Chemical Properties 2-Chloroacetophenone (CN) is a combustible, colorless-to-gray solid. CN has a sharp, irritating odor, has been described as smelling like “apple blossoms.” It may be dissolved in a solvent
  • Physical properties Colorless to gray crystalline solid with a sharp, penetrating, irritating odor. The low odor and high odor threshold concentrations were 102 and 150 μg/m3, respectively (Ruth, 1986).
  • Uses Riot control agent.
  • Uses Chemical warfare agent (CN); principal constituent in riot control agent Mace; in tear gas formulations for personal protection devices
  • Uses CN is used as a nonlethal or less-than-lethal chemical in riot control situations to distract, deter, incapacitate, disorient, or disable disorderly people; to clear facilities or areas; to deny areas; or for hostage rescue. It can also be used in peacekeeping operations. It is also used in military training as a confidence builder for the protective mask.
  • Definition A strong lachrymator.
  • Synthesis Reference(s) The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 49, p. 2032, 1984 DOI: 10.1021/jo00185a046
    Tetrahedron, 51, p. 703, 1995 DOI: 10.1016/0040-4020(94)00989-8
    Tetrahedron Letters, 13, p. 4661, 1972
  • General Description Colorless liquid, odorless to fruity.
  • Hazard Strong irritant to eyes and tissue as gas or liquid. Skin and upper respiratory tract irritant. Questionable carcinogen.
  • Health Hazard Median lethal dose (mg-min/m3): 11000 (estimated). Median incapacitating dose: 80. Eye/skin toxicity: Temporarily severe eye irritation; mild skin irritation. Rate of action: Instantaneous. Physiological action: Powerfully lacrimatory. Detoxification rate: Rapid. (ANSER)
  • Fire Hazard Combustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily. When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors and sewers explosion hazards. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. Substance may be transported in a molten form.
  • Contact allergens w-Chloroacetophenone is contained in tear gases (lacrimators). This substance has important irritative potential, but can also be a sensitizer.
  • Safety Profile A human poison by inhalation. An experimental poison by ingestion, inhalation, intraperitoneal, and intravenous routes. Human systemic effects by inhalation: lachrymation, conjunctiva irritation, and unspecified eye effects, cough, and dyspnea. A severe eye and moderate skin irritant. Questionable carcinogen with experimental neoplastigenic data by skin contact. A riot control agent. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl-. See also KETONES.
  • Potential Exposure Chloroacetophenone is used as a chemical warfare agent (Agent CN) and as a principal ingredient in the riot control agent Mace. It is also used as a pharmaceutical intermediate. The United States considers agent CN and its mixtures with various chemicals to be obsolete for military deployment.
  • Environmental Fate Chemical/Physical. Releases toxic chloride fumes when heated to decomposition (Sax and Lewis, 1987).
  • Shipping UN1697 Chloroacetophenone, solid, (CN), Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poison Inhalation. UN3416 Chloroacetophenone, liquid, (CN), Hazard Class: 6.1;Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials. Hazard. Military driver shall be given full and complete information regarding shipment and conditions in case of emergency. AR 50-6 deals specifically with the shipment of chemical agents. Shipments of agent will be escorted in accordance with AR 740-32.
  • Purification Methods Crystallise it from MeOH [Tanner J Org Chem 52 2142 1987]. [Beilstein 7 IV 641.]
  • Toxicity evaluation CN has a half-life under aerobic conditions of 672 h and can be biodegraded in most moist, nutrient-rich soil.
    Biodegradation in water is similar to degradation in soil. Howard et al. (1991) reports the same 672 h half-life for CN in aerobic surface water. This half-life is extended up to 2688 h for anaerobic aqueous degradation.
    Volatile losses of CN from surface waters can be another significant process for CN disappearance in water. For instance, Olajos and Stopford (2004) calculated that CN contamination in a river would have a half-life of approximately 14 days, while CN contamination in a lake would have a half-life of approximately 110 days.
  • Incompatibilities Keep away from water, steam, strong oxidizers. CN reacts with water, forming hydrochloric acid. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. CN reacts slowly with metals, causing mild corrosion and may evolve flammable hydrogen gas.
  • Waste Disposal Tear gas-containing waste is dissolved in an organic solvent and sprayed into an incinerator equipped with an afterburner and alkaline scrubber utilizing reaction with sodium sulfide in an alcoholwater solution. Hydrogen sulfide is liberated and collected by an alkaline scrubber.
2-Chloroacetophenone Preparation Products And Raw materials
Raw materials
Preparation Products
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