Zitronensure Produkt Beschreibung

Citric acid Struktur
77-92-9
  • CAS-Nr.77-92-9
  • Bezeichnung:Zitronensure
  • Englisch Name:Citric acid
  • Synonyma:Zitronensure;2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propantricarbonsäure<BR>beta-Hydroxytricarballylsäure<BR>Wasserfreie Zitronensäure
    Citro;E 330;F 4020;Suby G;INS 330;nsc30279;CheMfill;BETZ 0623;BETZ 6251;Citretten
  • CBNumber:CB9854361
  • Summenformel:C6H8O7
  • Molgewicht:192.12
  • MOL-Datei:77-92-9.mol
Zitronensure physikalisch-chemischer Eigenschaften
  • Schmelzpunkt: :153-159 °C(lit.)
  • Siedepunkt: :248.08°C (rough estimate)
  • Dichte :1.542
  • Dampfdruck :<0.1 hPa (20 °C)
  • Brechungsindex :1.493~1.509
  • FEMA  :2306 | CITRIC ACID
  • Flammpunkt: :100 °C
  • storage temp.  :Store at RT.
  • Löslichkeit :H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
  • Aggregatzustand :grit
  • pka :3.14(at 20℃)
  • Farbe :White
  • PH :1.0-2.0 (25℃, 1M in H2O)
  • Explosionsgrenze :8%, 65°F
  • Wasserlöslichkeit :750 g/L (20 ºC)
  • Sensitive  :Hygroscopic
  • maximale Wellenlänge (λmax) :λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.20
    λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.10
  • Merck  :14,2326
  • JECFA Number :218
  • BRN  :782061
  • Stabilität: :Stable. Incompatible with bases, strong oxidizing agents, reducing agents, metal nitrates.
  • InChIKey :KRKNYBCHXYNGOX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • CAS Datenbank :77-92-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST chemische Informationen :1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-(77-92-9)
  • EPA chemische Informationen :1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-(77-92-9)
Sicherheit

Citric acid Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

  • ERSCHEINUNGSBILD FARBLOSE KRISTALLE.
  • PHYSIKALISCHE GEFAHREN Staubexplosion der pulverisierten oder granulierten Substanz in Gemischen mit Luft möglich.
  • CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN Zersetzung beim Erhitzen über 175°C. Mittelstarke Säure in wässriger Lösung. Reagiert mit Oxidationsmitteln. Greift Metall an.
  • ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE TLV nicht festgelegt (ACGIH 2005).
    MAK: IIb (nicht festgelegt, aber Informationen vorhanden) (DFG 2006).
  • AUFNAHMEWEGE Aufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation und durch Verschlucken.
  • INHALATIONSGEFAHREN Verdampfen bei 20°C vernachlässigbar; eine belästigende Partikelkonzentration in der Luft kann jedoch beim Dispergieren schnell erreicht werden.
  • WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
    Die Substanz reizt die Augen, die Haut und die Atemwege.
  • WIRKUNGEN NACH WIEDERHOLTER ODER LANGZEITEXPOSITION Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf die Zähne mit nachfolgender Erosion.
  • LECKAGE Verschüttetes Material in Behältern sammeln; falls erforderlich durch Anfeuchten Staubentwicklung verhindern. Reste mit viel Wasser wegspülen. Persönliche Schutzausrüstung: Atemschutzgerät, P2-Filter für schädliche Partikel.
  • R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung: R41:Gefahr ernster Augenschäden.
    R36/37/38:Reizt die Augen, die Atmungsorgane und die Haut.
    R36/38:Reizt die Augen und die Haut.
    R37/38:Reizt die Atmungsorgane und die Haut.
    R34:Verursacht Verätzungen.
  • S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung: S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
    S39:Schutzbrille/Gesichtsschutz tragen.
    S37/39:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzbrille/Gesichtsschutz tragen.
    S24/25:Berührung mit den Augen und der Haut vermeiden.
    S36/37/39:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung,Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzbrille/Gesichtsschutz tragen.
    S45:Bei Unfall oder Unwohlsein sofort Arzt zuziehen (wenn möglich, dieses Etikett vorzeigen).
    S36:DE: Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung tragen.
  • Aussehen Eigenschaften C6H8O7; farblose, geruchlose Kristalle, sehr gut in Wasser löslich.
  • Gefahren für Mensch und Umwelt Reizt die Augen.
  • Schutzmaßnahmen und Verhaltensregeln Schutzhandschuhe als kurzzeitiger Staubschutz
  • Verhalten im Gefahrfall Mechanisch aufnehmen, der Entsorgung zuführen.
    Kohlendioxid, Wasser, Löschpulver.
  • Erste Hilfe Nach Hautkontakt: Bei Berührung mit der Haut sofort mit viel Wasser abwaschen.
    Nach Augenkontakt: Gründlich mit viel Wasser und geöffnetem Lidspalt mindestens 10 Minuten ausspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
    Nach Einatmen: Für Frischluft sorgen. Ärztlicher Behandlung zuführen.
    Nach Verschlucken: Mund ausspülen und reichlich Wasser nachtrinken. Ärztlicher Behandlung zuführen.
    Nach Kleidungskontakt: Beschmutzte Kleidung sofort ausziehen.
    Ersthelfer: siehe gesonderten Anschlag

  • Sachgerechte Entsorgung Als Feststoffabfälle.
  • Beschreibung Citric acid is a white, crystalline, weak organic acid present in most plants and many animals as an intermediate in cellular respiration. Citric acid contains three carboxyl groups making it a carboxylic, more specifically a tricarboxylic, acid.the name citrus originates from the Greek kedromelon meaning apple of melon for the fruit citron. Greek works mention kitron, kitrion, or kitreos for citron fruit, which is an oblong fruit several inches long from the scrublike tree Citrus medica. Lemons and limes have high citric acid content, which may account for up to 8% of the fruit’s dry weight.
    Citric acid is a weak acid and loses hydrogen ions from its three carboxyl groups (COOH) in solution.the loss of a hydrogen ion from each group in the molecule results in the citrate ion,C3H5O(COO)3 3?. A citric acid molecule also forms intermediate ions when one or two hydrogen atoms in the carboxyl groups ionize.the citrate ion combines with metals to form salts, the most common of which is calcium citrate. Citric acid forms esters to produce various citrates, for example trimethyl citrate and triethyl citrate.
  • Chemische Eigenschaften Citric acid is a weak organic acid with the formula C6H8O7. It is a natural preservative / conservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks. In biochemistry, the conjugate base of citric acid, citrate, is important as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms.
    Citric acid is a commodity chemical, and more than a million tonnes are produced every year by fermentation. It is used mainly as an acidifier, as a flavoring, and as a chelating agent.
  • Chemische Eigenschaften At room temperature, citric acid is a white crystalline powder. It can exist either in an anhydrous (water-free) form or as a monohydrate. The anhydrous form crystallizes from hot water, while the monohydrate forms when citric acid is crystallized from cold water. The monohydrate can be converted to the anhydrous form by heating above 78 °C. Citric acid also dissolves in absolute (anhydrous) ethanol (76 parts of citric acid per 100 parts of ethanol) at 15 °C.
    In chemical structure, citric acid shares the properties of other carboxylic acids. When heated above 175 °C, it decomposes through the loss of carbon dioxide and water.
    Citric acid is a slightly stronger acid than typical carboxylic acids because the anion can be stabilized by intramolecular hydrogenbonding from other protic groups on citric acid.
  • Chemische Eigenschaften Citricacid,(COOH)CH2C(OHXCOOH)CH2COOH, also known as 2-hydroxy- l,2,3-propane tricarboxylic acid, is a colorless crystalline solid. Citric acid is soluble in water and alcohol. It is found in many plants, especially citrus fruits. The juice of unripe lemonsis a commercial source of citric acid.The reaction of calcium citrate and dilute sulfuric acid yields citric acid and calcium sulfate,which maybe separated by filtration. The food industry uses citric acid as a flavoring agent and as an antioxidant. Citric acid, formulated with propylene glycol and butylated hydroxy anisol,is used as a stabilizer for fats, greases,and tallow. Etching,textile dyeing, and printing operations use citric acid in various applications, and it is also used to adjust the pH in certain electroplating baths.
  • Occurrence Citric acid exists in greater than trace amounts in a variety of fruits and vegetables, most notably citrus fruits. Lemons and limes have particularly high concentrations of the acid; it can constitute as much as 8 % of the dry weight of these fruits (about 47 g/L in the juices ) . The concentrations of citric acid in citrus fruits range from 0.005 mol/L for oranges and grapefruits to 0.30 mol/L in lemons and limes. Within species, these values vary depending on the cultivar and the circumstances in which the fruit was grown.
  • History The discovery of citric acid is credited to Jabir ibn Hayyan (Latin name Geber, 721–815). Citric acid wasfirst isolated in 1784 by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742–1786), who crystallized it from lemon juice.
  • Verwenden Citric acid and its citrate compounds are widely used in hundreds of applications. Globalproduction of citric acid in 2005 was 1.6 million tons, with China producing approximately40% of the world supply. In the United States, approximately 65% of citric acid use is in thefood and beverage industry. Citric acid is used as an acidulant to impart tartness, to controlpH, as a preservative and antioxidant, as a metal chelator, and to stabilize color and taste.Citrate salts can be used as mineral and metal dietary supplement; for example, calcium citrate is used as a calcium supplement.the second greatest use of citric acid is in detergents andcleaning products. Sodium citrate is used as a builder. Citric acid’s ability to chelate metalsmakes it useful as a water-softening agent, which can also assist in cleaning. Approximately10% of citric acid production is used in the pharmaceutical industry. Citric acid’s largest usein pharmaceuticals is as an eff ervescent when combined with carbonates or bicarbonates suchas in Alka-Seltzer. As an eff ervescent, it improves tastes, buff ers, and improves solubility ofingredients. It is also used in pharmaceuticals to impart tartness to mask unpleasant medicinalfl avors, maintain stability, and as a buff ering agent.
  • Verwenden Citric acid is a weak organic acid that is known as a commodity chemical, as more than a million tonnes are produced every year by mycological fermentation on an industrial scale using crude sugar sol utions, such as molasses and strains of Aspergillus niger. Citric acid is widely distributed in plants and in animal tissues and fluids and exist in greater than grace amounts in variety of fruits and vegetables, most notably in citrus fruits such as lemon and limes. Citric acid is mainly used as an acidifier, flavoring agent and chelating agent.
  • Verwenden Used in sequestering agents for trace metals; determination of citrate-soluble phosphorus pentoxide.
  • Verwenden citric acid has astringent and anti-oxidant properties. It can also be used as a product stabilizer, pH adjuster, and preservative with a low sensitizing potential. It is not usually irritating to normal skin, but it can cause burning and redness when applied to chapped, cracked, or otherwise inflamed skin. It is derived from citrus fruits.
  • Verwenden Citric Acid is an acidulant and antioxidant produced by mold fer- mentation of sugar solutions and by extraction from lemon juice, lime juice, and pineapple canning residue. it is the predominant acid in oranges, lemons, and limes. it exists in anhydrous and mono- hydrate forms. the anhydrous form is crystallized in hot solutions and the monohydrate form is crystallized from cold (below 36.5°c) solutions. anhydrous citric acid has a solubility of 146 g and mono- hydrate citric acid has a solubility of 175 g/100 ml of distilled water at 20°c. a 1% solution has a ph of 2.3 at 25°c. it is a hygroscopic, strong acid of tart flavor. it is used as an acidulant in fruit drinks and carbonated beverages at 0.25–0.40%, in cheese at 3–4%, and in jellies. it is used as an antioxidant in instant potatoes, wheat chips, and potato sticks, where it prevents spoilage by trapping the metal ions. it is used in combination with antioxidants in the processing of fresh frozen fruits to prevent discoloration.
  • Verwenden An organic acid obtained from lemon or lime. The colorless crystals of this acid are soluble in water and alcohol but less so in ether. It was used as a chemical restrainer particularly in developers for the collodion process and in silver nitrate solutions used for sensitizing salted and albumen papers.
  • Definition A white crystalline carboxylic acid important in plant and animal cells. It is present in many fruits. The systematic name is 2-hydroxypropane- 1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid. The formula is:
    HOOCCH2C(OH)(COOH)CH2COOH.
  • Definition citric acid: A white crystallinehydroxycarboxylic acid,HOOCCH2C(OH)(COOH)CH2COOH;r.d. 1.54; m.p. 153°C. It is present incitrus fruits and is an intermediate inthe Krebs cycle in plant and animalcells.
  • Definition ChEBI: A tricarboxylic acid that is propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid bearing a hydroxy substituent at position 2. It is an important metabolite in the pathway of all aerobic organisms.
  • Biotechnologische Produktion Fermentation is the technology of choice for citric acid synthesis. Different bacteria (e.g. Arthrobacter paraffinens and Bacillus licheniformis), filamentous fungi (e.g. Aspergilus niger and Penicillium citrinum) and yeasts (e.g. Candida tropicalis and Yarrowia lipolytica) are able to produce citric acid. Due to high productivity and easy handling, citric acid is usually produced by fermentation with A. niger. For example, a product concentration of 114 g.L-1 within 168 h has been reached by cultivation of A. niger GCMC 7 on cane molasses . On the industrial scale, submerged cultivation, surface fermentation and solid-state fermentation are used.
    In general, molasses, starch hydrolyzate and starch are used as substrates. However, there are various studies for alternative raw materials. Solid-state fermentation of inexpensive agricultural wastes is one possibility. For example, high yields up to 88 % have been achieved using grape pomace as substrate. Lowering the cost of product recovery is crucial. Different methods using precipitation, solvent extraction, adsorption, or in situ product recovery have been described. One interesting process could be the in situ crystallization of citric acid during fermentation to improve the economics.
  • Allgemeine Beschreibung Colorless, odorless crystals with an acid taste. Denser than water.
  • Air & Water Reaktionen The pure material is moisture sensitive (undergoes slow hydrolysis) Water soluble.
  • Reaktivität anzeigen Citric acid reacts with oxidizing agents, bases, reducing agents and metal nitrates . Reactions with metal nitrates are potentially explosive. Heating to the point of decomposition causes emission of acrid smoke and fumes [Lewis].
  • Health Hazard Inhalation of dust irritates nose and throat. Contact with eyes causes irritation.
  • Brandgefahr Behavior in Fire: Melts and decomposes. The reaction is not hazardous.
  • Biologische Aktivität Commonly used laboratory reagent
  • Biotechnological Applications Citric acid cycle
    Citrate, the conjugate base of citric acid is one of a series of compounds involved in the physiological oxidation of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and water.
    This series of chemical reactions is central to nearly all metabolic reactions, and is the source of two-thirds of the foodderived energy in higher organisms. Hans Adolf Krebs received the 1953 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery. The series of reactions is known by various names, including the "citric acid cycle", the "Krebs cycle" or "Szent-Gy?rgyi — Krebs cycle", and the "tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle".
    Other biological roles
    Citrate is a critical component of bone, helping to regulate the size of calcium crystals.
  • Sicherheitsprofil Poison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic by subcutaneous and intraperitoneal routes. Mildly toxic byingestion. A severe eye and moderate skin irritant. An irritating organic acid, some allergenic properties. Combustible liquid. Potentially explosive reaction with metal nitrates. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and fumes.
Citric acid Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte
Upstream-Materialien
Downstream Produkte
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77-92-9, Citric acid Verwandte Suche:
  • anhydrouscitricacid
  • beta-Hydroxytricarballylic acid
  • beta-hydroxytricarballylicacid
  • beta-hydroxy-tricarboxylicacid
  • AMMONIACAL AMMONIUM CHLORIDE BUFFER
  • BETZ 6251
  • BETZ 0623
  • BORIC ACID-POTASSIUM CHLORIDE-SODIUM HYDROXIDE BUFFER
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, PH 7.00
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  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, CITRATE/HYDROCHLORIC ACID
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  • BUFFER SOLUTION, BORIC ACID/POTASSIUM CHLORIDE-SODIUM CHLORIDE
  • BUFFER SOLUTION, BORIC ACID/POTASSIUM CHLORIDE-SODIUM HYDROXIDE
  • BUFFER SOLUTION, CITRATE/HYDROCHLORIC ACID
  • BUFFER SOLUTION, CITRATE/SODIUM HYDROXIDE
  • BUFFER SOLUTION, GLYCINE/HYDROCHLORIC ACID
  • BUFFER SOLUTION, BORATE/HYDROCHLORIC ACID
  • BUFFER SOLUTION, PH 1, +/- 0.02
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  • CITRIC ACID FREE ACID, ANHYDROUS PLANTCE LL CULTURE
  • CITRIC ACID 99.5+% FCC
  • CITRIC ACID, 500MG, NEAT
  • CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS, FOR LUMINESCENCE
  • Citrate Ion Chromatography Standard Solution Fluka
  • CITRIC ACID, 99+%
  • CITRIC ACID SOLUTION 30 L
  • CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS, ACS
  • CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS, PH EUR, GRIT
  • Citric Acid Anhydrous USP/FCC, Fine Granular
  • Citric Acid Anhydrous USP/FCC, Granular
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  • L-CitrullineForBiochemistry99+%
  • CitricAcid(Monohydrate&Anhydrate)
  • CitricAcidMonohydrateC6H8O7
  • CitricAcidAnhydrousBp98KosherGrade
  • CitricAcidAnhydrousC6H8O7