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Isopropyl myristate

Basic information Chemical Properties Content Analysis Applications Production Method Toxicity Safety Related Supplier
Isopropyl myristate Basic information
Isopropyl myristate Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:-5°C
  • Boiling point:193 °C20 mm Hg(lit.)
  • Density 0.85 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
  • vapor pressure <1 hPa (20 °C)
  • FEMA 3556 | ISOPROPYL MYRISTATE
  • refractive index n20/D 1.434(lit.)
  • Flash point:>230 °F
  • storage temp. 2-8°C
  • solubility <0.05mg/l
  • form Liquid
  • Specific Gravity0.855 (20/4℃)
  • color Clear
  • Water Solubility Miscible with alcohol. Immiscible with water and glycerol.
  • JECFA Number311
  • Merck 14,5215
  • BRN 1781127
  • Stability:Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
  • InChIKeyAXISYYRBXTVTFY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • CAS DataBase Reference110-27-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceIsopropyl Myristate(110-27-0)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemIsopropyl myristate (110-27-0)
Safety Information
  • Hazard Codes Xi
  • Risk Statements 36/37/38
  • Safety Statements 26-36
  • WGK Germany -
  • RTECS XB8600000
  • Autoignition Temperature>300 °C
  • TSCA Yes
  • HS Code 29159080
  • Hazardous Substances Data110-27-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
  • ToxicityLD50 orally in Rabbit: > 10000 mg/kg LD50 dermal Rabbit > 5000 mg/kg
MSDS
Isopropyl myristate Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical PropertiesIt is a colorless and odorless liquid, and miscible with vegetable oil. It is not easy to be either hydrolyzed or become rancid. The refractive index nD20 is 1.435~1.438, and the relative density (20°C) is 0.85~0.86.
  • Content AnalysisWeight 1.5 g sample. Then it is determined by the method ester assay (OT-18). The equivalent factor (e) in the calculation is 135.2. Or it is determined by a non-polar column method of gas chromatography (GT-10-4).
  • Applications
    • It is applied as a dispersant for lipstick, hair cream, lipstick, cleansing cream, fragrance powder and medical ointment and can be also used as perfume fixative.
    • It is applied as dispersant for cosmetics.
    • Carrier solvent. Allowed food flavor additive according GB 2760-96.
    • It is one of the important ingredients of high-end cosmetics, has excellent penetration into the skin, moisture and softening effect and is used as emulsifier and wetting agent for cosmetics.
    • Used for organic synthesis. As solvent. For the preparation of spices.
    • Oily raw materials of cosmetics, solvent for pesticide original drugs.
    • It is widely used as additives for high-end cosmetics, such as ointment, cream, and conditioner.
  • Production MethodIt is a product of esterification of myristic acid derived from re-steamed coconut coil with isopropyl alcohol.
    (1)  200 kg myristic acid and 450 kg isopropyl alcohol were added into the reaction vessel in turn. After mixing, 360 kg sulfuric acid (98%) was added. The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 10 hours. Isopropyl alcohol was then recovered, washed with ice water, and neutralized with Na2CO3 aqueous solution (10%). Under normal pressure, isopropyl alcohol and water were distilled. While under reduced pressure, isopropyl myristate was distilled (185°C/1.0kPa~195°C/2.7kPa).
    (2) 90 kg isopropyl alcohol was added into the reaction vessel and then sulfuric acid as catalyst, with 5% of the total amount, was added. During mixing, 228 kg myristic acid was added slowly. The mixture was heated to reflux and water was continuously separated. Until no water was separated, the reaction temperature was reduced and probe was obtained to measure the acid value. When the acid value reached 1.5 mg KOH/g, the reaction was completed. Alkali was then added for neutralization. After the removal of water under reduced pressure, the pressure was further reduced for dealcoholization until the acid value was 0.05~1.0 mg KOH/g. The final product is then isopropyl myristate.
  • ToxicityADI is not regulated (FAO/WHO, 2001).
  • DescriptionIsopropyl myristate is odorless when pure. May be synthesized by conventional esterification of isopropanol with myristic acid.
  • Chemical PropertiesPure isopropyl myristate is virtually odorless, very slightly fatty, but not rancid
  • Chemical Propertiescolourless liquid of low viscosity
  • Chemical PropertiesIsopropyl myristate is a clear, colorless, practically odorless liquid of low viscosity that congeals at about 5°C. It consists of esters of propan-2-ol and saturated high molecular weight fatty acids, principally myristic acid.
  • OccurrenceReported found in kumquat peel oil, papaya, starfruit, plum brandy, coriander seed and loquat
  • UsesIn cosmetic and topical medicinal Preparations where good absorption through the skin is desired. A jellied isopropyl myristate was marketed as Estergel (Merck & Co.) .
  • Usesisopropyl myristate is an emollient, moisturizer, binder, and skin softener that also assists in product penetration. An ester of myristic acid, it is naturally occurring in coconut oil and nutmeg. Although isopropyl myristate is generally considered comedogenic, some ingredient manufacturers clearly specify non-comedogenicity on their data sheets.
  • Production MethodsIsopropyl myristate may be prepared either by the esterification of myristic acid with propan-2-ol or by the reaction of myristoyl chloride and propan-2-ol with the aid of a suitable dehydrochlorinating agent. A high-purity material is also commercially available, produced by enzymatic esterification at low temperature.
  • PreparationBy conventional esterification of isopropanol with myristic acid
  • brand nameEstergel (Merck).
  • Pharmaceutical ApplicationsIsopropyl myristate is a nongreasy emollient that is absorbed readily by the skin. It is used as a component of semisolid bases and as a solvent for many substances applied topically. Applications in topical pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations include bath oils; make-up; hair and nail care products; creams; lotions; lip products; shaving products; skin lubricants; deodorants; otic suspensions; and vaginal creams. For example, isopropyl myristate is a self-emulsifying component of a proposed cold cream formula, which is suitable for use as a vehicle for drugs or dermatological actives; it is also used cosmetically in stable mixtures of water and glycerol.
    Isopropyl myristate is used as a penetration enhancer for transdermal formulations, and has been used in conjunction with therapeutic ultrasound and iontophoresis.It has been used in a water-oil gel prolonged-release emulsion and in various microemulsions. Such microemulsions may increase bioavailability in topical and transdermal applications. Isopropyl myristate has also been used in microspheres, and significantly increased the release of drug from etoposide-loaded microspheres.
    Isopropyl myristate is used in soft adhesives for pressuresensitive adhesive tapes.
  • Contact allergensDespite wide use in cosmetics, perfumes, and topical medicaments, isopropyl myristate is a very weak sen- sitizer and a mild irritant.
  • PharmacologyIsopropyl myristate is used in pharmaceutical preparations because it improves solubility and increases absorption through the skin. External uses include a non-irritating iodine preparation for disinfecting the skin (Powers & Rieger, 1963) and aerosol bactericidal preparations for feminine hygiene use without irritation of the skin and mucous membranes (Geistlich, 1970; Watson. 1969). Preparations for internal use include oral steroid formulations (Hirata, 1970) and anaesthetic injection solutions (Davis, Pearce & Connor, 1972).
    Veterinary medications containing isopropyl myristate include oral or parenteral compositions for lungworm infections (N. V. Philips' Gloielampenfabrieken, 1964) and a spray formulation for bovine udders to treat mastitis, combat infection and improve the general skin condition (Kraus, 1965). Isopropyl myristate has been found to be an effective repository vehicle for im injection of penicillin in rabbits and for sc administration of oestrogens in ovariectomized rats (Platcow & Voss, 1954).
    In assays on human forearms, vasoconstrictor activity of ointment preparations containing 0025% betamethasone 17-benzoate in white soft paraffin was increased by the presence of isopropyl myristate (Pepler, Woodford & Morrison, 1971). Donovan, Ohmart & Stoklosa (1954) noted that the good solvent properties of isopropyl myristate might increase the therapeutic activity of formulations by the apparent alteration in particle size of the active ingredients, so that further evaluation and clinical study would be necessary before its use in extemporaneous compounding could be recommended. Studies in which the antifungal activity of paraben esters solubilized by surfactants was decreased by isopropyl myristate (Matsumoto & Aoki, 1962) indicate that the effectiveness of medicinal substances may be influenced by the presence of surfactants and oily ingredients such as isopropyl myristate.
  • SafetyIsopropyl myristate is widely used in cosmetics and topical pharmaceutical formulations, and is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant material.
    LD50 (mouse, oral): 49.7 g/kg
    LD50 (rabbit, skin): 5 g/kg
  • MetabolismHigher molecular weight aliphatic esters are thought to be readily hydrolysed to the corresponding alcohols and acids which are then metabolized; isopropyl myristate is undoubtedly hydrolysed to normal metabolic products (Fassett, 1963). When myristic acid (as the ethyl ester) was fed to dogs,
  • storageIsopropyl myristate is resistant to oxidation and hydrolysis, and does not become rancid. It should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place and protected from light.
  • IncompatibilitiesWhen isopropyl myristate comes into contact with rubber, there is a drop in viscosity with concomitant swelling and partial dissolution of the rubber; contact with plastics, e.g. nylon and polyethylene, results in swelling. Isopropyl myristate is incompatible with hard paraffin, producing a granular mixture. It is also incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
  • Regulatory StatusIncluded in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (otic, topical, transdermal, and vaginal preparations). Used in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
Isopropyl myristate Preparation Products And Raw materials
Isopropyl myristate (110-27-0)Related Product Information
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