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Di-tert-butyl peroxide

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Di-tert-butyl peroxide Basic information
Di-tert-butyl peroxide Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:-30 °C
  • Boiling point:109-110 °C(lit.)
  • Density 0.796 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
  • vapor pressure 40 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
  • refractive index n20/D 1.3891(lit.)
  • Flash point:34 °F
  • storage temp. 2-8°C
  • solubility 0.063g/l
  • form Liquid
  • color Clear
  • Water Solubility immiscible
  • Merck 14,3461
  • BRN 1735581
  • Stability:May decompose explosively if heated, subjected to shock, or treated with reducing agents. Highly flammable. Refrigerate.
  • CAS DataBase Reference110-05-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceDi-tert-butyl peroxide(110-05-4)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemDi-tert-butyl peroxide (110-05-4)
Safety Information
Di-tert-butyl peroxide Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical Propertiescolourless liquid
  • UsesAs polymerization catalyst.
  • UsesDi-t-butyl peroxide (DTBP) is used as apolymerization catalyst.
  • Synthesis Reference(s)Tetrahedron, 36, p. 2409, 1980 DOI: 10.1016/0040-4020(80)80219-5
  • General DescriptionClear colorless liquid.
  • Reactivity ProfileThe explosive instability of the lower dialkyl peroxides (e.g., dimethyl peroxide) and 1,1-bis-peroxides decreases rapidly with increasing chain length and degree of branching, the di-tert-alkyl derivatives being amongst the most stable class of peroxides. Though many 1,1-bis-peroxides have been reported, few have been purified because of the higher explosion hazards compared with the monofunctional peroxides. Di-tert-butyl peroxide is unlikely that this derivative would be particularly unstable compared to other peroxides in it's class, Bretherick 1979v.
  • Health HazardDTBP is slightly toxic by inhalation andin general exhibits low to very low toxicityby other routes. However, toxic effectsare observed only at very high concentrations.Rats exposed to 4103-ppm vapor developedhead and neck tremor after 10 minutesof exposure (Floyd and Stockinger 1958).Other symptoms were weakness, hyperactivity,and labored breathing. However, theanimals recovered fully in 1 hour.
    LD50 value, intraperitoneal rats): 3210 mg/kg
    DTBP is nonirritating to the skin and mildon the eyes. It is reported to cause lungand blood tumors in mice (NIOSH 1986).However, its carcinogenicity is not yet fullyestablished.
  • Fire HazardHighly flammable and reactive; flash point 18°C (64.4°F); vapor pressure 19.5 torr at 20°C (68°F); vapor density 5.03. Its decomposition products are ethane and acetone, which enhance the fire hazard. Use a water spray to fight fire and to keep the containers cool.
    DTBP forms an explosive mixture with air. The explosive range is not reported. Its decomposition products may explode above its boiling point, 111°C (231.8°F). However, as it is thermally stable and shock insensitive, its explosion hazard is much lower. It may, however, react with explosive violence when in contact with easily oxidizable substances.
  • CarcinogenicityA single exposure (route unspecified, but probably subcutaneous (SC)) of 14.6 mg (~365 mg/kg) produced unconvincing evidence for carcinogenicity owing to the lack of controls in 50 mice observed for more than 80 weeks. Of 35 survivors, 7 (20%) had malignant blood tumors (lymphomas) and 1 had a benign lung tumor (pulmonary adenoma) (93, 7a). Owing to its poor design, this study should be judged inadequate to determine carcinogenicity.
  • storageStore in a cool and well-ventilated areaisolated from easily oxidizable materials.Protect against physical damage. Shippingcontainers are amber glass and polyethylenebottles or steel drums not exceeding 100-lbcapacity.
  • Purification MethodsWash the peroxide with aqueous AgNO3 to remove olefinic impurities, water and dry (MgSO4). Free it from tert-butyl hydroperoxide by passage through an alumina column [Jackson et al. J Am Chem Soc 107 208 1985], and if necessary two high vacuum distillations from room temperature to a liquid-air trap [Offenbach & Tobolsky J Am Chem Soc 79 278 1957]. [Beilstein 1 IV 1619.] The necessary protection from EXPLOSION should be used.
  • Waste DisposalDTBP is disposed on the ground in a remotearea and ignited with a long torch. 10%NaOH may be used to wash empty containers.
Di-tert-butyl peroxide Preparation Products And Raw materials
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