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Glimepiride

Glimepiride (original trade name Amaryl) is an orally available medium-to-long-acting sulfonylurea antidiabetic drug. It is sometimes classified as either the first third-generation sulfonylurea, or as second-generation. Like all sulfonylureas, glimepiride acts as an insulin secretagogue. It lowers blood sugar by stimulating the release of insulin from functioning pancreatic beta cells and by increasing sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin. Glimepiride likely binds to ATP-sensitive potassium channel receptors on the pancreatic cell surface, reducing potassium conductance and causing depolarization of the membrane.

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Glimepiride Basic information
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  • DescriptionGlimepiride (original trade name Amaryl) is an orally available medium-to-long-acting sulfonylurea antidiabetic drug. It is sometimes classified as either the first third-generation sulfonylurea, or as second-generation. Like all sulfonylureas, glimepiride acts as an insulin secretagogue. It lowers blood sugar by stimulating the release of insulin from functioning pancreatic beta cells and by increasing sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin. Glimepiride likely binds to ATP-sensitive potassium channel receptors on the pancreatic cell surface, reducing potassium conductance and causing depolarization of the membrane. Membrane depolarization stimulates calcium ion influx through voltage-sensitive calcium channels. This increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration induces the secretion of insulin. Glimepiride is mainly used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes and can also decrease the chances that someone will develop complications of type 2 diabetes, such as kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, sexual function problems and heart attack or stroke. The drug was approved by the FDA in 1995 and is manufactured by Sanofi-Aventis. It can be used along with proper diet and exercise program and may also be used alone or with other antidiabetic medicines if need. The drug is available only with your doctor's prescription.
  • References1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glimepiride
    2. http://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-12271/glimepiride-oral/details
    3. https://www.drugs.com/cdi/glimepiride.html
    4. http://www.medicinenet.com/glimepiride/article.htm
    5. http://www.everydayhealth.com/drugs/glimepiride
    6. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/drug-glimepiride/article_em.htm
    7. https://www.ghc.org/kbase/topic.jhtml?docId=d03864a1
    8. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/drug-glimepiride/article_em.htm
    9. http://drugs.healthgrove.com/l/3454/Glimepiride
  • DescriptionGlimepiride, the first of a new generation of sulfonylurea drugs, was introduced in Sweden in 1995 as a first-line therapy to lower blood glucose in patients with type II diabetes. Sulfonylureas exert their hypoglycemic function primarily by direct stimulation of insulin secretion in glucose-insensitive pancreatic β-cells and GLUT translocation in insulin-resistant fat and muscle cells. Once-daily, orally administered glimepiride in diabetes patients showed a more rapid and longer lasting glucose-lowering effect than the commonly used agent glibenclamide. Glimepiride can be used either as a monotherapy or in combination with insulin.
  • Chemical PropertiesWhite Cyrstalline Solid
  • OriginatorHoechst Marion Roussel (Germany)
  • Usesanticonvulsant
  • UsesFor concomitant use with insulin for the treatment of noninsulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus.
  • UsesA sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent. Used as an antidiabetic
  • Manufacturing ProcessBy heating of a mixture of 3-ethyl-4-methyl-2-pyrrolone and 2- phenylethylisocyanate at 150°C is obtained 3-ethyl-4-methyl-2-oxo-3- pyrroline-1-(N-2-phenylethyl)-carboxamide, melting point 106°-108°C. Then the carboxamide are introduced in portions at 30°C into chlorosulfonic acid, and agitated for 1 hour at 40°C. The sulfochloride (melting point 172-175°C), introduced into concentrated ammonia, and heated for 30 min on a steam bath. The mixture of sulfonamide obtained (melting point 180°-182°C), of acetone and K2CO3 are refluxed with agitation for 6 hours. Subsequently the cyclohexyl isocyanate are added dropwise, and agitation is continued for 6 hours at boiling temperature. After standing overnight, the product is filtered, the crystals obtained are treated with dilute hydrochloric acid, and again filtered. It is prepared N-(4-[2-(3-ethyl-4-methyl-2-oxo-3-pyrroline-1- carboxamido)ethyl]benzenesulfonyl)-N'-cyclohexyl urea; melting point 185°- 187°C (from acetone) (Glimepiride).
  • brand nameAmaryl (Sanofi Aventis).
  • Therapeutic FunctionOral hypoglycemic
  • General DescriptionGlimepiride is 3-ethyl-2,5-dihydro-4-methyl-N-[2-[4-[[[[(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)amino]-carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]phenyl]ethyl]-2-oxo-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxamide; thiscompound can also be named as the urea—see precedingdiscussion (Amaryl, generic). Combinations are availablewith rosiglitazone in the United States (Avandaryl tablets;mg glimepiride/mg rosiglitazone as maleate salt: 1/4,2/4, 4/4, 2/8, 4/8); and with pioglitazone (Duetact tablets;mg glimepiride/ mg pioglitazone as hydrochloride salt:2/30, 4/30).
  • General DescriptionGlimepiride, 1-[[p-[2-(3-ethyl-4-methyl-2-oxo-3-pyrroline-1-carboxamido)ethyl]phenyl]sulfonyl]-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)urea (Amaryl), is very similarto glipizide with the exception of their heterocyclic rings.Instead of the pyrazine ring found in glipizide, glimepiridecontains a pyrrolidine system. It is metabolized primarilythrough oxidation of the alkyl side chain of the pyrrolidine,with a minor metabolic route involving acetylation of theamine.
  • Biological ActivityPotent K ATP channel blocker and anti-diabetic agent. Inhibits pinacidil-activated cardiac K ATP channels with an IC 50 of 6.8 nM.
  • Veterinary Drugs and TreatmentsGlimepiride may potentially be a useful adjunct in the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in cats. Its duration of action in humans allows it to be dosed once daily, which could be of benefit in cats. It may also have fewer side effects than glipizide in cats.
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