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Methylhydrazine Basic information
Methylhydrazine Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:-21 °C
  • Boiling point:88-90 °C(lit.)
  • Density 0.875 g/mL at 20 °C(lit.)
  • vapor density 1.6 (vs air)
  • vapor pressure 37.5 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
  • refractive index n20/D 1.4325(lit.)
  • Flash point:70 °F
  • storage temp. Flammables area
  • solubility Soluble in alcohol and ether (Weast, 1986)
  • pka8.84±0.70(Predicted)
  • form liquid
  • color colorless to pale yellow
  • explosive limit97%
  • Water Solubility soluble
  • Merck 13,6109
  • BRN 635645
  • Exposure limitsPotential occupational carcinogen. NIOSH REL: 2-h ceiling 0.04 ppm (0.08 mg/m3), IDLH 20 ppm; OSHA PEL: ceiling 0.2 ppm (0.35 mg/m3); ACGIH TLV: TWA 0.01 ppm (adopted).
  • Stability:Stable. Flammable. Hygroscopic. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, copper, iron and their alloys.
  • CAS DataBase Reference60-34-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceHydrazine, methyl-(60-34-4)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemMethyl hydrazine (60-34-4)
Safety Information
Methylhydrazine Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical Propertiescolourless liquid with an ammonia-like odour
  • Chemical PropertiesMethyl hydrazine is a fuming, colorless liquid with an ammonia-like odor. The odor threshold is 1.31.7 ppm.
  • Physical propertiesFuming, clear, colorless liquid with an ammonia-like odor. Odor threshold concentrations ranged from 1 to 3 ppm (quoted, Keith and Walters, 1992).
  • UsesMethylhydrazine is used in missile propellants and as a solvent and chemical intermediate.
  • UsesRocket fuel; solvent; chemical intermediate
  • UsesMissile propellant, intermediate, solvent.
  • Production MethodsMethylhydrazine ignites spontaneously on contact with strong oxidizing agents. It is prepared commercially from the reaction of monochloroamine and monomethylamine.
  • Air & Water ReactionsHighly flammable. Often ignites spontaneously. Exposure to air on a large surface may result in spontaneous ignition [Def. Res. and Eng. 27. 1963]. Water soluble. Solutions are highly alkaline and generate heat when water is added.
  • Reactivity ProfileMethylhydrazine is a powerful reducing agent. Ignites upon contact with oxidizing agents i.e. dinitrogen tetraoxide, hydrogen peroxide [Hawley]. Water used to extinguish a fire may cause pollution and should be diked for later disposal. Gives basic solutions with water that generate heat when water is added.
  • HazardFlammable, dangerous fire risk, vapors mayexplode, may self-ignite in air and on contact withoxidizing agents. Toxic by ingestion and inhalation.Eye and upper respiratory tract irritant, lung cancerand liver damage. Possible carcinogen.
  • Health HazardMethyl hydrazine vapors are extremely toxic and the liquid is corrosive to skin. Methyl hydrazine is the strongest convulsant and the most toxic of methyl-substituted hydrazine derivatives. It is more toxic than hydrazine. At high doses, it is a strong central nervous system poison that can lead to convulsions and death. Skin rash may be aggravated by skin exposure.
  • Fire HazardExtremely flammable; ignites spontaneously under almost all normal temperature conditions. Water used to extinguish a fire may cause pollution and should be diked for later disposal. Water may be ineffective in extinguishing fires due to the chemical's low flash point. Because of the wide flammability limits, low flash point, and reignition hazard, dry chemicals, carbon dioxide, water spray, and foam may not be as effective as water dilution of fire area. The vapor is heavier than air; thus Methylhydrazine may accumulate sufficiently to flash back. Methylhydrazine fires produce irritating nitrogen oxides. Ignites spontaneously in air when in contact with porous materials (e.g., earth, asbestos, wood, or cloth). Also ignites spontaneously on contact with strong oxidizing agents (e.g., fluorine, chlorine trifluoride, fuming nitric acid, and nitrogen tetroxide). Heat or flame should be avoided because chemical is extremely flammable and explosive.
  • Safety ProfileSuspected carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic, neoplastigenic, tumorigenic, and teratogenic data. Poison by inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and intravenous routes. Experimental reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. Corrosive to skin, eyes and mucous membranes. May self-ignite in air. Very dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. Explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. A powerful reducing agent. It is hypergolic with many oxidants (e.g., dinitrogen tetraoxide and hydrogen peroxide). When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx.
  • Potential ExposureMMH has been used as the propellant in liquid propellant rockets; it is also used as a solvent and as an organic intermediate.
  • CarcinogenicityThe carcinogenicity of methylhydrazine has been extensively investigated. In two studies, no compound-related increase in tumor incidence was observed in mice treated orally with methylhydrazine . In other studies, methylhydrazine produced lung tumors in mice and malignant histiocytoma of the liver and cecal tumors in hamsters when administered in drinking water at concentrations of 0.01%. Potential carcinogenicity from vapor exposure to methylhydrazine was also investigated in rats, dogs, hamsters, and mice. Exposures to methylhydrazine at concentrations of 0.02 ppm (rats and mice only) and 0.2, 2, and 5 ppm (rats and hamsters only)were conducted for 6 h/day, 5 days/week, for a year, followed by observation for 1 year.
  • SourceRocket fuel; solvent; intermediate; organic synthesis.
  • Environmental FateBiological. It was suggested that the rapid disappearance of methylhydrazine in sterile and nonsterile soil (Arrendondo fine sand) under aerobic conditions was due to chemical oxidation. Although the oxidation product was not identified, it biodegraded to carbon dioxide in the nonsterile soil. The oxidation product did not degrade in the sterile soil (Ou and Street, 1988).
  • ShippingUN1244 Methylhydrazine, Hazard class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poison Inhalation Hazard, 3-Flammable liquid, 8-Corrosive material, Inhalation Hazard Zone A
  • Purification MethodsDry with BaO, then distil it in a vacuum. Store it under nitrogen. [Beilstein 4 IV 3322.]
  • IncompatibilitiesMay form explosive mixture with air. Methyl hydrazine is a highly reactive reducing agent and a medium strong base. May explode if heated. Violent reaction with strong oxidizers, such as fluorine, chlorine, combustibles, nitric acid; hydrogen peroxide. Incompatible with acids, alcohols, glycols, isocyanates, phenols, cresols; porous materials, such as earth, asbestos, wood and cloth. Oxides of iron or copper, manganese, lead, copper or their alloys can lead to fire and explosions. Attacks cork, some plastics, coatings and rubber.
  • Waste DisposalConsult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform to EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. There are 2 alternatives: Dilute with water, neutralize with sulfuric acid, then flush to sewer with large volumes of water or incinerate with added flammable solvent in furnace equipped with afterburner and alkaline scrubber.
Methylhydrazine Preparation Products And Raw materials
Methylhydrazine(60-34-4)Related Product Information