ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > Inorganic chemistry > Inorganic salts > Metal Sulphides and sulphates > Ammonium persulfate
Basic information Outline Chemical properties Uses Production methods Category Toxicity grading Acute oral toxicity Explosive hazardous characteristics Flammability hazard characteristics Storage characteristics Extinguishing agent Professional standards Safety Related Supplier
Ammonium persulfate Chemical Properties
- Melting point:120 °C
- Density 1.98
- vapor density 7.9 (vs air)
- refractive index 1.50
- storage temp. Store at RT.
- solubility H2O: soluble
- form powder
- color White to yellow
- Specific Gravity1.982
- PH1.0-2.5 (25℃, 1M in H2O)
- PH Range1 - 2
- Water Solubility 582 g/L (20 ºC) decomposes
- Sensitive Moisture Sensitive
- Merck 14,541
- Stability:Stable. Oxidizing. May ignite combustible material. Incompatible with bases, combustible material, hydrogen peroxide, peroxy compounds, silver compounds, zinc. May decompose upon exposure to water or moist air.
- CAS DataBase Reference7727-54-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemAmmonium peroxydisulfate (7727-54-0)
Ammonium persulfate Usage And Synthesis
- OutlineAmmonium persulfate is white, odorless single crystal, the formula is (NH4) 2S2O8, it has strong oxidation and corrosion, when heated, it decomposes easily, moisture absorption is not easy, it is soluble in water, the solubility increases in warm water, it can hydrolyze into ammonium hydrogen sulfate and hydrogen peroxide in an aqueous solution. The dry product has good stability, storage is easy, and it has the advantage of convenience and safety and so on. When heated to 120 °C, it can decompose, it is easily damped and it can cake in moist air. It is mainly used as an oxidizing agent and the preparation of hydrogen peroxide, potassium persulfate and other persulfate. It can be used as free initiator of polymerization reaction, particularly vinyl chloride emulsion polymerization of polymerizable compound and redox polymerization. It can be used as bleaching agent in grease, soap industry. It can be used to prepare aniline dyes and dye oxidation and electroplating industry, photographic industry and chemical analysis. For food-grade, it can be used as modifier of wheat, brewer's yeast mildew. It can be used as metal etchant, circuit board cleaning and etching, copper and aluminum surface activation, modified starch, pulp and textile bleaching at low temperature and desizing, circulating water purification treatment systems, oxidative degradation of harmful gases, low formaldehyde adhesive stick bound to accelerate, disinfectants, hair dye decolorization.
Ammonium persulfate is non-flammable, but it can release of oxygen, so it has the role of combustion-supporting, storage environment must be dry and clean, and well-ventilated. People should pay attention to moisture and rain, it should not be transported in rain. Keep away from fire, heat and direct sunlight. It should keep sealed packaging, clear and intact labels. It should be stored separately with flammable or combustible materials, organic compounds, as well as rust, a small amount of metal, and other reducing substances, it should avoid be mixed to prevent the decomposition of ammonium persulfate and cause explosion.
- Chemical propertiesIt is colorless monoclinic crystal or white crystalline powder. It is soluble in water, the solubility is 58.2g/100ml water at 0℃.
- UsesIt can be used as analytical reagents, photographic fixing agent and reducing agent.
It can be used as food preservative, oxidizing agent and initiator of high-molecular polymer.
It can be used as raw material of producting persulfate and hydrogen peroxide in chemical industry, inhibitor of polymerization organic polymer, initiator of during the polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer. It can be used as bleaching agent in grease, soap industry. It can also be used as corrodent in plate metals cutting eclipse and oil extraction in oil industry. For food-grade, it can be used as modifier of wheat, brewer's yeast mildew.
It can be used for flour modifier (Limited ≤0.3g/kg, the Japanese standard, 1999); Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungicide (limit 0.1%, FAO/WHO, 1984).
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Wang Xiaodong.
- Production methodsIt can be derived by the electrolysis of ammonium sulfate and dilute sulfuric acid and then crystallized.
Electrolytic process Ammonium sulfate and sulfuric acid formulates to form liquid electrolyte, it is decontaminated by electrolysis, HSO4-can discharge and generate peroxydisulfate acidat in the anode, and then reacts with ammonium sulfate to generate ammonium persulfate, ammonium persulfate goes through filtration, crystallization, centrifugal separation, drying to get ammonium persulfate product when the content reaches a certain concentration in the anode.
Anode reaction: 2HSO4--2e → H2S2O8
Cathodic reaction: 2H ++ 2e → H2 ↑
(NH4) 2S2O4 + H2S2O8 → (NH4) 2S2O8 + H2SO4
- Toxicity gradingMid toxicity.
- Acute oral toxicityRat LD50: 689 mg/kg; intraperitoneal-rat LD50: 226 mg/kg.
- Explosive hazardous characteristicsIt is strong oxidant, it can explode when mixed with reducing agent, sulfur, phosphorus etc; it can explode when be heated, impacted, and meet fire.
- Flammability hazard characteristicsIt can decompose of oxygen when high heat; it can generate toxic nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and ammonia fumes when heated.
- Storage characteristicsTreasury should have ventilation and low-temperature drying; loading and unloading should be light; it should be stored separately with organic matter, reducing agents, sulfur, phosphorus combustibles.
- Extinguishing agentMist of water, sand.
- Professional standardsTWA 2 mg/m3.
- DescriptionPersulfates are strong oxidizing agents widely used in the production of metals, textiles, photographs, cellophane, rubber, adhesive papers, foods, soaps, detergents and hair bleaches. Ammonium persulfate is used as a hair bleaching agent. It may induce irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis and represents a major allergen in hairdressers.
- Chemical PropertiesAmmonium persulfate is a colorless or white crystalline solid.
- Chemical PropertiesOff-white crystalline powder
- UsesUsed for detection and determination of manganese and iron.
- UsesAs oxidizer and bleacher; to remove hypo; reducer and retarder in photography; in dyeing, manufacture of aniline dyes; oxidizer for copper; etching zinc; decolorizing and deodorizing oils; electroplating; washing infected yeast; removing pyrogallol stains; making soluble starch; depolarizer in electric batteries; In animal chemistry chiefly for detection and determination of manganese.
- UsesAmmonium Persulfate is a bleaching agent for food starch that is used up to 0.075% and with sulfur dioxide up to 0.05%.
- General DescriptionA white crystalline solid. A strong oxidizing agent. Does not burn readily, but may cause spontaneous ignition of organic materials. Used as a bleaching agent and as a food preservative.
- Air & Water ReactionsSoluble in water.
- Reactivity ProfileAmmonium persulfate is a potent oxidizing agent. A powdered mixture with aluminum and water can explode [NFPA 491M 1991]. A mixture with sodium peroxide will explode if subjected to friction (crushing in a mortar), heating, or if a stream of carbon dioxide is passed over Ammonium persulfate [Mellor 10:464 1946-47]. Acidic solutions dissolve iron violently, [Mellor, 1947, Vol. 10, 470].
- HazardFire risk in contact with reducers.
- Health HazardInhalation produces slight toxic effects. Contact with dust irritates eyes and causes skin rash.
- Contact allergensPersulfates are strong oxidizing agents widely used in the production of metals, textiles, photographs, cellophane, rubber, adhesive papers, foods, soaps, detergents, and hair bleaches. Ammonium persulfate is used as a hair bleaching agent. It may induce irritant dermatitis, (mainly) nonimmunologic contact urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis and represents a major allergen in hairdressers. People reacting to ammonium persulfate also react to other persulfates such as potassium persulfate.
- Safety ProfilePoison by intravenous and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. A powerful oxidizer that can react vigorously with reducing agents. Releases oxygen when heated. Mxtures with sodium peroxide are explosives sensitive to friction, heating above 75℃, or contact with CO2 or water. Mixtures with (powdered aluminum + water) or (zinc + ammonia) are explosive. Violent reaction with iron or solutions of ammonia + silver salts. Solution with sulfuric acid is a strong oxidzing cleaning solution. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of SO,, NH3, and NOx.
- Potential ExposureIt is used as a bleaching agent, in photographic chemicals, and to make dyes. It is also used as an ingredient of polymerization catalysts.
- ShippingUN1444 Ammonium persulfate, Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer
- Purification MethodsRecrystallise it at room temperature from EtOH/water. It gradually loses NH3 on exposure to air. Its solubility is 0.5g/mL at 20o, and 2g/mL at 100o.
- IncompatibilitiesDecomposes in water and moist air, forming oxygen gas. A strong oxidizer; reacts with reducing agents; organic and combustible materials. Incompatible with heat, sodium peroxide (produces a friction-, heat-, and water-sensitive explosive); aluminum powder.
- Waste DisposalMay be treated with large volumes of water, neutralized and flushed to sewer. This applies to small quantities only.
Ammonium persulfate Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Raw materialsSulfuric acid AmmoniaAmmonium sulfate
- Preparation Productsweather-proof acrylic binder seriesAC anti-fungus leather finishing agentCSF series modified sacrylic binderBT modified acrylic resin binder seriesselfcrossline adhesive 7601amphoteric polyacrylamideadhesive of type Dongfengstiffening agent for synthetic fibre 8556-HYDROXY-7-METHOXYCOUMARINacrylate resin emulsion s-1binding agent SH-821polymer bactericidal flocculentrubber latex 104T/Ccoupling agent NBC-1impregnanting agent for leatherdeepening agent TR in pigment dyingbinding agent RF type DongfengLT-01 emulsionbutadiene resin emulsion LHYJ-DS50PR-I retanning agentthickening agent PASmodified acrylic resin emulsion BNselfcrosslinking emulsion use dfor paper PC-01 seriesfltrate reducer JST501acrylate resin emulsion new typemaleic acid-vinyl acetate copolymerwater stabilizing agent YSS-93Sodium persulfatesynthetic thickener KG-201Ca-copolyacrylatelow polymer viscosity reducerthickening agent PAEflocculant PDA of cationic typeemulsion used for paper series PCthermofusion dyeing leveler PATXG retention aidEMERALDINE BASE POLYANILINEPOLY(METHYL ACRYLATE)POLY(ACRYLIC ACID)Poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)
- AMMONIUM SULFITE Ammonium sulfate Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate AMMONIUM SULFITE Ammonium bisulfite ammonium trihydrogen disulphate Trans-hydroxy sulfone Hydrogen peroxide Sulfurous Acid Ammonium hydrogen sulfate BIS(TETRA-N-BUTYLAMMONIUM) PEROXYDISULFATE Ammonium carbonate Ammonium acetate Ammonium hydroxide Ammonium nitrate Molybdic acid AMMONIUM Ammonium persulfate
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