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Adiponitrile Basic information
Adiponitrile Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:1-3 °C(lit.)
  • Boiling point:295 °C(lit.)
  • Density 0.951 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
  • vapor density 3.7 (vs air)
  • vapor pressure 0.01 mm Hg ( 40 °C)
  • refractive index n20/D 1.438(lit.)
  • Flash point:163 °C
  • storage temp. Store below +30°C.
  • solubility 50g/l
  • form Liquid
  • color Clear colorless to slightly yellow
  • Specific Gravity0.951
  • explosive limit7-14%(V)
  • Water Solubility 90 g/L (20 ºC)
  • FreezingPoint 1℃
  • BRN 1740005
  • Exposure limitsTLV-TWA 18 mg/m3 (4 ppm) (NIOSH).
  • CAS DataBase Reference111-69-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceHexanedinitrile(111-69-3)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemAdiponitrile (111-69-3)
Safety Information
  • Hazard Codes T
  • Risk Statements 25-36/37/38-36/38-23/25
  • Safety Statements 26-36-45-39
  • RIDADR UN 2205 6.1/PG 3
  • WGK Germany 1
  • RTECS AV2625000
  • Autoignition Temperature460 °C
  • TSCA Yes
  • HazardClass 6.1
  • PackingGroup III
  • HS Code 29269090
  • Hazardous Substances Data111-69-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
  • ToxicityLD50 orally in Rabbit: 138 mg/kg LD50 dermal Rabbit 2134 mg/kg
Adiponitrile Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical PropertiesAdiponitrile is a combustible, water-white to yellow, oily liquid. A solid below 1.1 C. Practically odorless
  • UsesAdiponitrile is used in the production of hexamethylenediamine for manufacturing nylon 6,6 and to produce adipoguanamine to make amino resins.
  • Production MethodsAdiponitrile may be prepared by reacting butadiene with hydrogen cyanide, by the electrodimerization of acrylonitrile, by heating adipamide with acetic anhydride in the presence of cobalt or by reacting 1,4-dichlorobutane with sodium cyanide (HSDB 1988). Impurities such as propionitrile, bis (cyanoethyl) ether or acrylonitrile may be present depending on the method of manufacture (Smiley 1981).
  • General DescriptionA colorless to light colored solid, or a solid in a solution. Insoluble in water and denser than water. Contact may irritate skin, eyes and mucous membranes. May be toxic by ingestion, inhalation and skin absorption.
  • Air & Water ReactionsInsoluble in water.
  • Reactivity Profile1,4-Dicyanobutane is incompatible with strong oxidizers. 1,4-Dicyanobutane is also incompatible with strong acids, strong bases and strong reducing agents. .
  • Health HazardThe acute toxicity of adiponitrile is somewhat lower than that of malononitrile. It is toxic by inhalation and oral routes. Inhalation of its vapors can cause nausea, vomiting, respiratory tract irritation, and dizziness. The symptoms are similar to those of other aliphatic mono- and dinitriles. Similar poisoning effects may be manifested from ingestion of this compound. However, its toxicity is very low from skin absorption.
    Short et al. (1990) reported mortality and reduced weight gain in rats within one week after exposed to adiponitrile at 493 mg/m3. However, at an exposure level of 99 mg/m3 for 13 weeks the animals showed the sign of slight anemia but no histopathological evidence of organ toxicity.
    LC50 value, inhalation (rats): 1710 mg/m3/ 4 hr
    LD50 value, oral (mice): 172 mg/kg
    There is no report of its teratogenicity or cancer-causing effects in animals or humans.
  • Fire HazardCombustion products may contain hydrocyanic acid (HCN). Vapor may explode if ignited in an enclosed area. When heated to decomposition, 1,4-Dicyanobutane emits highly toxic fumes. Avoid oxidizing material. Hazardous polymerization may not occur.
  • Industrial usesAdiponitrile is used in nylon manufacturing, synthetic fiber synthesis, and in the manufacture of rubber accelerators and corrosion inhibitors. It is also used as an extractant for aromatic hydrocarbons (Smiley 1981).
  • Safety ProfilePoison by inhalation, ingestion, subcutaneous, and intraperitoneal routes. The nitrile group wdl behave as a cyanide when ingested or absorbed in the body. It produces disturbances of the respiration and circulation, irritation of the stomach and intestines, and loss of weight. Its low vapor pressure at room temperature makes exposure to harmful concentrations of its vapors unlikely if handled with Flammable when exposed to heat or flame. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of CN-. Can react with oxidizing materials. To fight fire, use foam, CO2, dry chemical. See also HYDROCYANIC ACID and NITRILESreasonable care in well-venulated areas.
  • Potential ExposureIs used to manufacture corrosion inhibitors, rubber accelerators, and Nylon 66; and in organic synthesis.
  • MetabolismAnimal studies indicated that the concentrations of thiocyanate in the blood and urine of guinea pigs injected with adiponitrile were proportional to the doses administered. Following administration of adiponitrile, 79% was eliminated as thiocyanate in the urine of guinea pigs (H?rtung 1982). Of the cyanide antidotes, thiosulfate was most effective in protecting against adiponitrile poisoning, and nitrite was less effective. However, on the basis of the ratio between administered adiponitrile dose and quantity of cyanide detected, Ghiringhelli, (1955) concluded that a greater part of the dose was metabolized to cyanide.
  • ShippingUN2205 Adiponitrile, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials
  • Purification MethodsReflux adiponitrile over P2O5 and POCl3, and fractionally distil it, then fractionate it through an efficient column. The liquid is TOXIC and is an IRRITANT. [Braun & Rudolph Chem Ber 67 1770 1934, Reppe et al. Justus Liebigs Ann Chem 596 127 1955, Gagnon et al. Can J Chem 34 1662 1956, Copley et al. J Am Chem Soc 62 228 1940, Beilstein 2 IV 1947.]
  • IncompatibilitiesMay form explosive mixture with air. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause violent reactions: fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. Also incompatible with strong reducing agents such as hydrideds and active metals. Permissible Exposure Limits in Air
  • Waste DisposalAdd excess alcoholic KOH. Than evaporate alcohol and add calcium hypochlorite. After 24 hours, flush to sewer with water. Can also be incinerated with afterburner and scrubber to remove nitrogen oxides.
Adiponitrile Preparation Products And Raw materials
Adiponitrile(111-69-3)Related Product Information
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