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Cetirizine hydrochloride

Basic information Description References Safety Related Supplier
Cetirizine hydrochloride Basic information
Cetirizine hydrochloride Chemical Properties
Safety Information
  • Hazard Codes Xn,Xi
  • Risk Statements 22-36/37/38
  • Safety Statements 26-36
  • RIDADR 3249
  • WGK Germany 3
  • RTECS AG0977500
  • HazardClass 6.1(b)
  • PackingGroup III
  • HS Code 29339900
Cetirizine hydrochloride Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionCetirizine hydrochloride is an orally-active and selective histamine (H1)-receptor antagonist. It is a second-generation antihistamine and a human metabolite of hydroxyzine. Three important features of cetirizine are: a high specificity fort he H1-receptor; a low need for metabolism, and the existence of non-H1-dependent activities on cells involved in the pathogenesis of allergy.
    Cetirizine is used to treat seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR), perennial allergic rhinitis, useful in treating urticaria and atopic dermatitis. Cetirizine possesses also mild anti-inflammatory effects.
  • References[1] E. J. Corey and Christopher J. Helal, Catalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of the Second-Generation Histamine Antagonist Cetirizine Hydrochloride, Tetrahedron Letters, 1996, vol. 37, 4837-4840
    [2] Jay M. Portnoy and Chitra Dinakar, Review of cetirizine hydrochloride for the treatment of allergic disorders, Journal of Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 2004, vol. 5, 125-135
  • DescriptionCetirizine hydrochloride is a once-daily, non-sedating antihistamine useful in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, urticaria and conjunctivitis. It is reported to be more effective than most other agents in this category such as terfenadine and astemizole.
  • Chemical PropertiesCrystalline Solid
  • OriginatorUCB (Belgium)
  • Usesrespiratory stimulant
  • UsesA nonsedating type histamine H1-receptor antagonist. A major metabolite of Hydroxyzine. Pharmacological activity resides primarily in the (R)-isomer. Antihystaminic.
  • Useslong acting calcium channel blocker
  • UsesAntihistaminic
  • IndicationsCetirizine HCl (Zyrtec) is the carboxylic acid metabolite of hydroxyzine. It is a selective, peripheral H1 receptor antagonist. It is a long-lasting antihistamine. It does not appear to have the same adverse cardiac effects as the other nonsedating H1 antihistamines; however, additional data are required. Indicated for allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria.
  • Manufacturing ProcessPreparation of 2-[4-[(4-chlorophenyl)phenylmethyl]-1-piperazinyl]- ethoxy]acetic acid (cetirizine).
    To a mixture of 50 g 2-[4-[(4-chlorophenyl)phenylmethyl]-1-piperazinyl]- ethanol and 225 ml of tert-butanol at 45°C under a nitrogen was added 21 g tert-BuOK. The temperature was raised to 75-80°C and the mixture was kept at this temperature. After 45 min was added 11 g sodium chloracetate; after 1.5 hour was added 5.2 g tert-BuOK; after 2 hours was added 5.64 g sodium chloracetate; after 2.5 hours was added 1.9 g tert-BuOK; after 3 hours was added 1.9 g sodium chloracetate; after 3.5 hours was added 0.8 g tert-BuOK; and after 4 hours was added 1.13 g sodium chloracetate. Then about 150 ml tert-butanol was distilled of, 190 ml of water was added and the distillation of tert-butanol was continued until the temperature of the vapour reaches 100°C. To the reaction mixture was added 60 ml of water and 8 ml concentrated hydrochloric acid to pH 8. Unreacted 2-[4-[(4-chlorophenyl) phenylmethyl]-1-piperazinyl]-ethanol was extracted with diethyl ether. The aqueous phase was acidified to pH 5 by addition of hydrochloric acid and extracted with dichloromethane (200 ml x 3). The extract was dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in a rotary evaporator. An obtained oil was allowed to crystallize by addition of 150 ml of 2-butanone, yields of 2-[4-[(4- chlorophenyl)phenylmethyl]-1-piperazinyl]-ethoxy]acetic acid 55.5%, M.P. 146-148°C.
    32.7 g 2-[4-[(4-chlorophenyl)phenylmethyl]-1-piperazinyl]-ethoxy]acetic acid was suspended in a mixture of 125 ml of water and 13.8 ml 37% aqueous hydrochloric acid. The mixture was concentrated in a rotary evaporator. An obtained oil was allowed to crystallize by addition of 245 ml of 2-butanone, yields of 2-[4-[(4-chlorophenyl)phenylmethyl]-1-piperazinyl]-ethoxy]acetic acid dihydrochloride 88%, M.P. 228.22°C.
  • brand nameZyrtec (Pfizer).
  • Therapeutic FunctionAntihistaminic; Antiallergic
  • Biological ActivityHistamine H 1 receptor antagonist that displays selectivity over other receptors at concentrations up to 10 μ M. A non-sedating antihistamine that inhibits histamine release and eosinophil chemotaxis during secondary phase allergic response. Inhibits activation of eosinophils, neutrophils and monocytes in vivo .
  • Veterinary Drugs and TreatmentsCetirizine is a H1 receptor blocking antihistamine agent that may be useful for the adjunctive treatment of histamine-mediated pruritic conditions in dogs or cats.
  • Dosage forms5 to 10mg daily.
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