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Desloratadine Basic information
Desloratadine Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:150-151°C
  • Boiling point:467.9±45.0 °C(Predicted)
  • Density 1?+-.0.06 g/cm3(Predicted)
  • storage temp. 2-8°C
  • solubility DMSO: >10mg/mL
  • pka10.27±0.20(Predicted)
  • form powder
  • Merck 14,2922
  • CAS DataBase Reference100643-71-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
Safety Information
  • WGK Germany 3
  • RTECS DE8011000
  • HS Code 2933399090
Desloratadine Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionDesloratadine is a second generation of tricyclic antihistamine. It is a H1-receptor antagonist which has anti-inflammatory activity. Its affinity to the H1 receptor is higher than most other H1-receptor antagonists. Desloratadine works by blocking a certain natural substance (histamine) which is produced during an allergic reaction. Desloratidine has a long-lasting effect and does not cause drowsiness because it does not readily enter the central nervous system.
    Desloratadine is used to treat nasal and non-nasal symptoms (watery eyes, runny nose, itching eyes/nose, sneezing, and itching) of seasonal allergic rhinitis. It is also used to relieve chronic itching caused by hives.
  • Chemical PropertiesBeige Solid
  • OriginatorSepracor (US)
  • UsesA histamine H1-receptor antagonist. An active metabolite of Loratadine
  • UsesNonsedating-type histamine H1-receptor antagonist. An active metabolite of Loratadine. Also inhibits generation and release of inflammatory mediators from basophils and mast cells.
  • Usesantiinflammatory
  • UsesFor the relief of symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis, perennial (non-seasonal) allergic rhinitis. Desloratidine is also used for the sympomatic treatment of pruritus and urticaria (hives) associated with chronic idiopathic urticaria.
  • DefinitionChEBI: Loratadine in which the ethoxycarbonyl group attached to the piperidine ring is replaced by hydrogen. The major metabolite of loratidine, desloratadine is an antihistamine which is used for the symptomatic relief of allergic conditions including rhinitis nd chronic urticaria. It does not readily enter the central nervous system, so does not cause drowsiness.
  • brand nameClarinex (Schering-Plough).
  • General DescriptionDesloratadine, 8-chloro-6,11-dihydro-11-(4-piperdinylidene)-5H-benzo[5,6]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridine(Clarinex) is a white to off-white powder that is slightlysoluble in water, but very soluble in ethanol and propyleneglycol. It is the proposed active metabolite loratadine and hasa very similar receptor binding and safety profile. It is indicated for the symptomatic relief of pruritus andreduction in the number and size of hives in chronic idiopathicurticaria patients 6 months of age and older and for therelief of the nasal and nonnasal symptoms of perennial allergicrhinitis (in patients 6 months of age and older) and seasonalallergic rhinitis (in patients 2 years of age and older).
    Desloratadine is extensively metabolized to 3-hydroxydesloratadine,also an active metabolite, which is subsequentlyglucuronidated . The cytochrome enzymesresponsible for the formation of 3-hydroxydesloratadinehave not been reported. Coadministration ofdesloratadine with CYP3A4 inhibitors results in marginalincreases in plasma concentrations of desloratadine and3-hydroxydesloratadine, but no significant changes in safetyor efficacy. The mean elimination half-life of desloratadineis about 6 hours, and the drug and its metabolites areeliminated in the urine and feces.
  • Clinical UseDesloratadine was launched as an improved version of Schering-Plough's Claritin? (Loratadine), for the treatment of nasal and non-nasal symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). Desloratadine can be prepared by a 7-step synthesis starting with a Ritter reaction on 2-cyano-3-picoline and involving successively alkylation with 3- chlorobenzyl chloride, dehydration, Grignard reaction with the piperidine magnesium chloride, intramolecular cyclization in strong acidic medium, and finally demethylation of the piperidine. Desloratadine (the descarboethoxyloratadine) is a biologically active metabolite of the second-generation antihistamine Ioratadine. Desloratadine is a nonsedating competitive histamine H1 receptor antagonist with increased potency and improved safety as compared to Ioratadine. When compared with other H1 antagonists as an inhibitor of histamine-induced calcium flux in CHO cells, desloratadine was found to be more potent than most H1 antagonists (such as the widely used terfenadine, fexofenadine, cetirizine, Ioratadine and astemizole) in this assay. Desloratadine is also a potent antagonist of muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors (not M2) indicating anticholinergic activity. These effects may be the explanation for the unexpected decongestant effects of desloratadine reported in clinical trials. Desloratadine appears to be devoid of significant effects on potassium channels and does not appear to suffer from adverse interaction with cytochrome P450 inhibitors. Clinical studies have shown that it does not induce sedation or cardiac arrhythmias and does not potentiate the effects of alcohol. Apparent total body clearance is in the range of 114-201 l/h and the mean elimination half life is 19-34.6 h in human. Desloratadine is available as 5-mg tablets, which is the once-daily recommended dose for adults and children above 12 years. It may be taken without regard to food. The treatment not only improved symptoms of SAR but also improved patient ratings of nasal congestion. The FDA also has issued an "approvable" letter for this agent for the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria (ClU).
  • References[1]
    [2] Raif S. Geha, Eli O. Meltzer (2001) Desloratadine: A new, nonsedating, oral antihistamine, The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology,107, 751-762
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