ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > Chemical Reagents > Organic reagents > Nitro compounds > 1,4-DINITROBENZENE
1,4-DINITROBENZENE Chemical Properties
- Melting point:170-173 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:183.4 °C34 mm Hg(lit.)
- Density 1.625 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- vapor pressure 2.25 x 10-4 mmHg at 35 °C (Hine et al., 1963)
- refractive index 1.725 (589.3 nm)
- Flash point:150 °C
- storage temp. 2-8°C
- solubility alcohol: soluble1g in 300ml
- form Crystals or Powder
- color Ochre to orange
- Water Solubility Soluble in water. (0.8 g/L) at 20°C.
- Merck 14,3273
- BRN 1105828
- Henry's Law Constant4.79(x 10-7 atm?m3/mol) at 35 °C (approximate - calculated from water solubility and vapor pressure)
- Exposure limitsNIOSH REL: TWA 1, IDLH 50; OSHA PEL: TWA 1 ACGIH TLV: TWA 0.15 ppm for all isomers (adopted).
- Stability:Stable, but may be shock-sensitive. May explode if heated. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, strong bases, nitric acid, many metals, tin oxides.
- CAS DataBase Reference100-25-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry Systemp-Dinitrobenzene (100-25-4)
- Hazard Codes T+,N,T,F
- Risk Statements 26/27/28-33-34-50/53-52/53-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11
- Safety Statements 28-36/37-45-60-61-16
- RIDADR UN 3443 6.1/PG 2
- WGK Germany 3
- RTECS CZ7525000
- TSCA Yes
- HazardClass 6.1
- PackingGroup II
- HS Code 29042090
- ToxicityIC50 (24-h) for river bacteria 1.27 mg/L (Yuan and Lang, 1997).
1,4-DINITROBENZENE Usage And Synthesis
- Chemical Propertieslight yellow powder
- Physical propertiesClear, colorless to white crystalline solid or monoclinic crystals. Slowly turns yellow on exposure to air.
- Usesmanufacture of dyes, dye intermediates, explosives, plastics.
- DefinitionChEBI: A dinitrobenzene carrying nitro groups at positions 1 and 4.
- General DescriptionColorless to yellow solid. Sinks and mixes slowly with water.
- Air & Water ReactionsSlowly mixes with water.
- Reactivity ProfileAll three isomers have similar properties and may react vigorously with oxidizing materials. Their reaction with nitric acid (nitration) will lead to a mixture of trinitrobenzenes possessing high-explosive properties [Urbanski, 1967, vol. 3, p. 290]. If heat and reaction conditions of the nitration are not controlled, detonation comparable to TNT may occur [Anon., J. R. Inst. Chem., 1960, 84, p. 451]. Mixture of 1,3-dinitrobenzene with tetranitromethane was found highly explosive [Urbanski, 1964, vol. 1, 592]. 1,2-dinitrobenzene is a severe explosion hazard when shocked or exposed to heat or flame. When heated to decomposition all dinitrobenzens emit toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 1374].
- Health HazardINHALATION OR INGESTION: Headache, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, rapid weak pulse, decreased blood pressure, cyanosis, exhaustion, hepatomegaly, jaundice, albuminurea, hematuria, visual scotomata, amblyopia and nystagmus. EYES: Irritation. SKIN: Stains skin yellow; if skin contact is prolonged, can be absorbed into blood causing same symptoms as for inhalation.
- Safety ProfileSuspected carcinogen. Poison by ingestion. Mutation data reported. Mxture with nitric acid is a high explosive. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx. See also 0and mDINITROBENZENE
- Environmental FateBiological. In activated sludge inoculum, following a 20-d adaptation period, no biodegradation
was observed (Pitter, 1976).
Photolytic. Low et al. (1991) reported that the nitro-containing compounds (e.g., 2,4- dinitrophenol) undergo degradation by UV light in the presence of titanium dioxide yielding ammonium, carbonate, and nitrate ions. By analogy, 1,4-dinitrobenzene should degrade forming identical ions.
Chemical/Physical. Releases toxic nitrogen oxides when heated to decomposition (Sax and Lewis, 1987). 1,4-Dinitrobenzene will not hydrolyze in water (Kollig, 1993).
- Purification MethodsCrystallise 1,4-dinitrobenzene from EtOH or EtOAc. Dry it under vacuum over P2O5. It can be sublimed in a vacuum. [Beilstein 5 IV 741.]
1,4-DINITROBENZENE Preparation Products And Raw materials
- 1,2-Benzenediol, 3,6-dinitro- (9CI) 2,5-DINITROBENZOIC ACID 1,4-Dinitronaphthalene 9,10-DINITROANTHRACENE 1,2,4,5-tetrachloro-3,6-dinitrobenzene 3,6-dinitro-o-toluidine 1,4-DINITROBENZENE N-(4-methyl-2,5-dinitrophenyl)acetamide 2,3,6-TRINITROPHENOL 2-CHLORO-1,4-DINITROBENZENE 2,3,6-TRINITROTOLUENE 1,4-DIFLUORO-2,5-DINITROBENZENE 2,3,5-TRINITROTOLUENE 2,4,5-TRINITROTOLUENE DINITRO BROMO FLUORESCEIN 2,5-DINITROTOLUENE 1,4,5-TRINITRONAPHTHALENE DINITRODURENE