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1-Nonanal Basic information
1-Nonanal Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:-18°C
  • Boiling point:93 °C/23 mmHg (lit.)
  • Density 0.827 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
  • vapor pressure ~0.26 mm Hg ( 25 °C)
  • refractive index n20/D 1.424(lit.)
  • FEMA 2782 | NONANAL
  • Flash point:147 °F
  • storage temp. Store below +30°C.
  • form Liquid
  • Specific Gravity0.827
  • color Clear colorless to light yellow
  • Odor Threshold0.00034ppm
  • Water Solubility Practically insoluble
  • JECFA Number101
  • BRN 1236701
  • Stability:Stable. Flammable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
  • CAS DataBase Reference124-19-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceNonanal(124-19-6)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemNonanal (124-19-6)
Safety Information
  • Hazard Codes Xi
  • Risk Statements 36/37/38
  • Safety Statements 26-37/39
  • RIDADR 3082
  • WGK Germany 2
  • RTECS RA5700000
  • TSCA Yes
  • HazardClass 9
  • PackingGroup III
  • HS Code 29121900
  • Hazardous Substances Data124-19-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
  • ToxicityLD50 orally in Rabbit: > 5000 mg/kg
1-Nonanal Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionNonanal has a strong, fatty odor developing an orange and rose note on dilution. It has a fatty, citrus-like flavor. May be synthesized by catalytic oxidation of the corresponding alcohol (n- nonanol) or by reduction of the corresponding acid.
  • Chemical Propertiesn-Nonanal has a strong, fatty odor developing an orange and rose note on dilution. It has a fatty, citrus-like flavor
  • Chemical Propertiesbrown liquid
  • Chemical PropertiesNonanal occurs in citrus and rose oils. It is a colorless liquid with a fatty, rose-like odor and is used in floral compositions, particularly those with rose characteristics.
  • OccurrenceReported as a constituent in the oils of sweet and bitter orange, mandarin, lemon, lime, grapefruit, kumquat, orris, Ceylon cinnamon, ginger, Xanthoxylum rhetsa, rose and clary sage; in the turpentines from Pinus jeffreyi Grev. and Balf., Pinus sabiniana Dangl. and others. Also reported in over 200 food and beverages including apple, apricot, citrus peel oils and juices, many berries, grapes, melon, papaya, peach, pear, currants, pineapple, carrot, celery, cucumber, peas, cooked potato, tomato, ginger, Mentha oils, thyme, breads, cheeses, butter, milk, cream, cooked egg, fish, meats, beer, cognac, rum, whiskies, grape wines, tea, roasted filberts and peanuts, oats, soybean, coconut, olive, plum, plumcot, beans, mushroom, starfruit, macadamia nut, mango, cauliflower, broccoli, tamarind, fig, artichoke, cardamom, coriander leaf, gin, rice, litchi, sweet potato, avocado, calamus, dill, lovage, caraway seed, corn oil, corn tortillas, loquat, endive, lemon balm, clary sage, shrimp, oyster, clam, scallop, Chinese quince, maté, sweet grass oil and mastic gum fruit oil.
  • UsesNonanal is a flavoring agent that is a colorless or light yellow liquid, with a strong odor resembling an essence of orange and rose. It is soluble in alcohol, most fixed oils, mineral oil, and propylene glycol, but insoluble in glycerin. It is obtained by chemical synthesis. It is also termed aldehyde c-9 and pelargonic aldehyde.
  • UsesA component of essential oils, Nonanal possesses a strong fruity odor. Essential oils have varying effects from antibacterial activity to hypolipidemic activity.
  • DefinitionChEBI: A fatty aldehyde formally arising from reduction of nonanoic acis. Metabolite observed in cancer metabolism.
  • PreparationBy catalytic oxidation of the corresponding alcohol (n-nonanol) or reduction of the corresponding acid
  • Aroma threshold values1 to 8 ppb; aroma characteristics at 1.0%: sweet waxy, orange citrus with oily fatty and melon skin nuances and a slightly lactonic nuance
  • Taste threshold valuesaste characteristics at 2 ppm in 5% sugar and 0.1% CA: aldehydic citrus orange body with waxy and oily melon-like nuances
  • Synthesis Reference(s)Journal of the American Chemical Society, 103, p. 7590, 1981 DOI: 10.1021/ja00415a029
    The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 43, p. 1598, 1978 DOI: 10.1021/jo00402a029
  • General DescriptionClear brown liquid characterized by a rose-orange odor. Insoluble in water. Found in at least 20 essential oils, including rose and citrus oils and several species of pine oil.
  • Air & Water ReactionsSensitive to air. Insoluble in water.
  • Reactivity Profile1-Nonanal is an aldehyde. Aldehydes are frequently involved in self-condensation or polymerization reactions. These reactions are exothermic; they are often catalyzed by acid. Aldehydes are readily oxidized to give carboxylic acids. Flammable and/or toxic gases are generated by the combination of aldehydes with azo, diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, nitrides, and strong reducing agents. Aldehydes can react with air to give first peroxo acids, and ultimately carboxylic acids. These autoxidation reactions are activated by light, catalyzed by salts of transition metals, and are autocatalytic (catalyzed by the products of the reaction). The addition of stabilizers (antioxidants) to shipments of aldehydes retards autoxidation. Polymerizes readily with sulfuric acid and oxidized to nonanoic acid.
  • Fire Hazard1-Nonanal is combustible.
  • Safety ProfileA severe skin irritant. Combustible liquid. Mutation data reported. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. See also ALDEHYDES.
  • MetabolismSee aldehyde C-8
1-Nonanal Preparation Products And Raw materials
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