Levodopa Chemical Properties
- Melting point:276-278 °C(lit.)
- alpha -11.7 º (c=5.3, 1N HCl)
- Boiling point:334.28°C (rough estimate)
- Density 1.3075 (rough estimate)
- refractive index -12 ° (C=5, 1mol/L HCl)
- storage temp. 2-8°C
- solubility Slightly soluble in water, practically insoluble in ethanol (96 per cent). It is freely soluble in 1 M hydrochloric acid and sparingly soluble in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid .
- pka2.32(at 25℃)
- form Crystalline Powder
- color White to creamy
- Water Solubility Slightly soluble in water, dilute hydrochloric acid and formic acid. Insoluble in ethanol.
- Merck 14,5464
- BRN 2215169
- Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Light and air sensitive.
- CAS DataBase Reference59-92-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry ReferenceLevodopa(59-92-7)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemLevodopa (59-92-7)
- Hazard Codes Xn
- Risk Statements 22-36/37/38-20/21/22
- Safety Statements 26-36-24/25
- WGK Germany 3
- RTECS AY5600000
- F 10-23
- TSCA Yes
- HS Code 29225090
- Hazardous Substances Data59-92-7(Hazardous Substances Data)
- ToxicityLD50 in mice (mg/kg): 3650 ±327 orally, 1140 ±66 i.p., 450 ±42 i.v., >400 s.c.; in male, female rats (mg/kg): >3000, >3000 orally; 624, 663 i.p.; >1500, >1500 s.c. (Clark)
Levodopa Usage And Synthesis
- Chemical PropertiesColorless Crystalline Powder
- UsesAn immediate precursor of dopamine and product of tyrosine hydroxylase.
- UsesNatural isomer of the immediate precursor of dopamine; product of tyrsine hydroxylase
- DefinitionChEBI: An optically active form of dopa having L-configuration. Used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease
- brand nameBendopa (Valeant); Dopar (Shire); Larodopa (Roche).
- Biological FunctionsLevodopa (L-DOPA), the most reliable and effective
drug used in the treatment of parkinsonism, can be considered
a form of replacement therapy. Levodopa is the
biochemical precursor of dopamine. It is used
to elevate dopamine levels in the neostriatum of parkinsonian
patients. Dopamine itself does not cross the
blood-brain barrier and therefore has no CNS effects.
However, levodopa, as an amino acid, is transported
into the brain by amino acid transport systems, where it is converted to dopamine by the enzyme L-aromatic
amino acid decarboxylase.
If levodopa is administered alone, it is extensively metabolized by L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase in the liver, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. To prevent this peripheral metabolism, levodopa is coadministered with carbidopa (Sinemet), a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. The combination of levodopa with carbidopa lowers the necessary dose of levodopa and reduces peripheral side effects associated with its administration.
Levodopa is widely used for treatment of all types of parkinsonism except those associated with antipsychotic drug therapy. However, as parkinsonism progresses, the duration of benefit from each dose of levodopa may shorten (wearing-off effect). Patients can also develop sudden, unpredictable fluctuations between mobility and immobility (on-off effect). In a matter of minutes, a patient enjoying normal or nearly normal mobility may suddenly develop a severe degree of parkinsonism. These symptoms are likely due to the progression of the disease and the loss of striatal dopamine nerve terminals.
- General DescriptionThe first significant breakthrough in the treatment of PDcame about with the introduction of high-dose levodopa.Fahn referred to this as a revolutionary development intreating parkinsonian patients. The rationale for the use oflevodopa for the treatment of PD was established in theearly 1960s. Parkinsonian patients were shown to have decreasedstriatal levels of DA and reduced urinary excretionof DA. Since then, levodopa has shown to be remarkablyeffective for treating the symptoms of PD.Because ofenzymatic action of MAO-A in the gastrointestinal (GI)tract and AADC in the periphery, only a small percentage(1%–2%) of levodopa is delivered into the CNS.Coadministration of levodopa with the AADC inhibitor,carbidopa, prevents decarboxylation of levodopa outside ofthe CNS. The combination of levodopa and carbidopa resultsin a substantial increase in DA delivery to the CNSwith a decrease in peripheral side effects. Long-term therapywith levodopa leads to predictable motor complications.These include loss of efficacy before the next dose(“wearing off”), motor response fluctuations (“on/off”), andunwanted movements (dyskinesias).These effects arethought to be caused by the inability of levodopa therapyto restore normal DA levels in the CNS.As a result, theuse of longer-acting DA agonists may benefit parkinsonianpatients.
- Biological ActivityImmediate precursor of dopamine, produced by tyrosine hydroxylase. Displays antiParkinsonian activity.
- Safety ProfilePoison by ingestion. Moderately toxic by intravenous and intraperitoneal routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion: somnolence, hallucinations and distorted perceptions, toxic psychosis, motor activity changes, ataxia, dyspnea. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Questionable human carcinogen producing skin tumors. Human mutation data reported. An anticholinergic agent used as an anti Parhnsonian drug. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx
- Purification MethodsLikely impurities are vanillin, hippuric acid, 3-methoxytyrosine and 3-aminotyrosine. DOPA recrystallises from large volumes of H2O forming colourless white needles; its solubility in H2O is 0.165%, but it is insoluble in EtOH, *C6H6, CHCl3, and EtOAc. Also crystallise it by dissolving it in dilute HCl and adding dilute ammonia to give pH 5, under N2. Alternatively, crystallise it from dilute aqueous EtOH. It is rapidly oxidised in air when moist, and darkens, particularly in alkaline solution. Dry it in vacuo at 70o in the dark, and store it in a dark container preferably under N2. It has at 220.5nm (log 3.79) and 280nm (log 3.42) in 0.001N max HCl. [Yamada et al. Chem Pharm Bull Jpn 10 693 1962, Bretschneider et al. Helv Chim Acta 56 2857 1973, NMR: Jardetzky & Jardetzky J Biol Chem 233 383 1958, Beilstein 4 IV 2492, 2493.]
Levodopa Preparation Products And Raw materials
- 4-Amino-3-phenylbutanoic acid 4-Ethoxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-4-oxo-1-butanaminium chloride Guanidineacetic acid DROXIDOPA levodopa methyl ester LABOTEST-BB LT00847269 (S)-ethyl 2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoate S-(-)-Carbidopa Dimethyl methyldopa 3-METHOXY-L-TYROSINE (2RS,3RS)-2-AMINO-3-(3,4-DIHYDROXY-PHENYL)-3-HYDROXY-PROPIONIC ACID Levodopa Boc-D-Tyr-OH TYROSINASE L-carnitine L-Alanine Levamisole Methyldopa
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