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Ceftriaxone sodium

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Ceftriaxone sodium Basic information
Ceftriaxone sodium Chemical Properties
Ceftriaxone sodium Usage And Synthesis
  • OriginatorRocephin,Roche,Switz.,1982
  • UsesCeftriaxone sodium is antibacteria.
  • Manufacturing Process19 g of (6R,7R)-7-[2-[2-(2-chloroacetamido)-4-thiazolyl]-2-(methoxyimino) acetamido]-8-oxo-3-[[(1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-4-methyl-5,6-dioxo-as-triazin-3- yl)thio]methyl]-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid are suspended in 150 ml of water together with 9.5 g of thiourea. The pH is adjusted to 6.8 with 5% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution while gassing with nitrogen and stirring, there being obtained a yellow-orange solution. The pH of the solution is held constant at 6.8-7.0 for 6 hours by adding sodium hydrogen carbonate solution by means of an autotitrator. 100% formic acid is added to the orange colored solution until the pH is 3.5. The precipitated material is filtered off under suction and washed with 100 ml of 10% formic acid. This material is denoted as (1). The filtrate is adjusted to pH 2.5 by adding 100% formic acid, whereby additional substance precipitates out. The mixture is held in an ice-bath for 1 hour, the precipitated substance is then filtered off and washed with a small amount of ice-water. This material is denoted as fraction I. The aforementioned orange-brown material (1) is suspended in 250 ml of water. The suspension is adjusted to pH 7 with 2 N sodium hydroxide, there being obtained an orange-brown solution. Additional 100% formic acid is added to this solution until the pH is 3.5. The material which thereby precipitates out is filtered off under suction and discarded. The filtrate is adjusted to pH 2.5 with 100% formic acid, whereby additional substance precipitates out. The mixture is held in an ice-bath for 1 hour, the precipitated substance is then filtered off under suction and washed with a small amount of ice-water. This material is denoted as fraction II. Fractions I and II are suspended together in 500 ml of ethanol and evaporated in a rotary evaporator in order to remove water. After adding ether, the mixture is filtered under suction and the precipitate is washed successively with ether and low-boiling petroleum ether. There is thus obtained the title substance in the form of a yellowish solid material which is denoted as A.
    The mother liquors and washings of fractions I and II are concentrated from a volume of about 1.7 liters to 250 ml, the pH is adjusted to 2.5 with 100% formic acid and the solution is stored overnight in a refrigerator, whereby further substance crystallizes. This is filtered off under suction and washed with a small amount of water. The residue on the suction filter is azeotropically distilled with ethanol. There is obtained solid, almost colorless title substance which is denoted as B. B is purer than A according to thin-layer chromatography.
    In order to obtain pure title substance, the acid B is suspended in 150 ml of methanol and treated while stirring with 10 ml of a 2 N solution of the sodium salt of 2-ethylcaproic acid in ethyl acetate. After about 10 minutes, there results a solution which is treated with 100 ml of ethanol. The mixture is extensively concentrated at 40°C in vacuo. The sodium salt precipitates out in amorphous form after adding ethanol. This salt is filtered off under suction, washed successively with ethanol and low-boiling petroleum ether and dried at 40°C in a high vacuum. There is obtained the title substance in the form of an almost colorless amorphous powder.
  • brand nameRocephin (Roche).
  • Therapeutic FunctionAntibacterial
  • HazardModerately toxic. Low toxicity by inges- tion. Human systemic effects.
  • Clinical UseCeftriaxone sodium is a β-lactamase–resistantcephalosporin with an extremely long serum half-life.Once-daily dosing suffices for most indications. Two factorscontribute to the prolonged duration of action ofceftriaxone: high protein binding in the plasma and slowurinary excretion. Ceftriaxone is excreted in both the bileand the urine. Its urinary excretion is not affected byprobenecid. Despite its comparatively low volume ofdistribution, it reaches the cerebrospinal fluid in concentrationsthat are effective in meningitis. Nonlinear pharmacokineticsare observed.
    Ceftriaxone contains a highly acidic heterocyclic systemon the 3-thiomethyl group. This unusual dioxotriazine ringsystem is believed to confer the unique pharmacokineticproperties of this agent. Ceftriaxone has been associatedwith sonographically detected “sludge,” or pseudolithiasis,in the gallbladder and common bile duct. Symptoms ofcholecystitis may occur in susceptible patients, especiallythose on prolonged or high-dose ceftriaxone therapy. Theculprit has been identified as the calcium chelate.
    Ceftriaxone exhibits excellent broad-spectrum antibacterialactivity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negativeorganisms. It is highly resistant to most chromosomally andplasmid-mediated β-lactamases. The activity of ceftriaxoneagainst Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Serratia, indole-positiveProteus, and Pseudomonas spp. is particularly impressive. Itis also effective in the treatment of ampicillin-resistant gonorrheaand H. influenzae infections but generally less activethan cefotaxime against Gram-positive bacteria and B.fragilis.
  • Veterinary Drugs and TreatmentsCeftriaxone is used to treat serious infections, particularly against susceptible Enterobacteriaceae that are not susceptible to other less expensive agents or when aminoglycosides are not indicated (due to their potential toxicity). Its long half life, good CNS penetration, and activity against Borrelia burgdorferi also has made it a potential choice for treating Lyme’s disease.
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