ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > Inorganic chemistry > Inorganic salts > Metal Sulphides and sulphates > Lead(II) sulfide
Basic information Occurrence and Uses Physical Properties Preparation Reactions Safety Related Supplier
Lead(II) sulfide Chemical Properties
- Melting point:1114°C
- Boiling point:1281°C (estimate)
- Density 7.5 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- refractive index 3.921
- storage temp. -20°C
- solubility Soluble in strong HNO<sub>3</sub>, in excess of hot HCl
- form Metallic Crystals, Powder Lump
- Specific Gravity7.5
- color White
- Water Solubility Soluble in water (0.00086g/L) and acid. Insoluble in alcohol, and potassium hydroxide.
- Merck 14,5421
- Solubility Product Constant (Ksp)pKsp: 27.1
- Stability:Stable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, acids, water.
- CAS DataBase Reference1314-87-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemLead(II) sulfide (1314-87-0)
Lead(II) sulfide Usage And Synthesis
- Occurrence and UsesLead sulfide occurs in nature as the mineral galena. Most lead comes from this ore. Additionally, lead sulfide has several industrial applications. It is used in infrared detectors; transistors; photoconductive cells; high temperature lubricants; and for glazing earthenware. It also is used as a catalyst in petroleum refining for removal of mercaptans from petroleum distillates.
- Physical PropertiesBlack powder or cubic crystal; refractive index 3.91; Moh’s hardness 2.5; melts at 1,118°C; vapor pressure 1 torr at 852°C and 5 torr at 928°C; very slightly soluble in water (124 mg/L at 20°C); KSP 9.04x10–29 at 25°C; soluble in acids.
- PreparationLead sulfide occurs naturally as the mineral galena. It can be prepared in the laboratory as a black precipitate by passing hydrogen sulfide through a dilute acid solution of inorganic lead salt, such as lead nitrate or lead acetate:
Pb2+ + H2S → PbS + 2H+
It also is obtained by direct combination of elements by heating metallic lead with sulfur vapors.
- ReactionsLead sulfide decomposes in excess concentrated hydrochloric acid liberating hydrogen sulfide and probably forming chloroplumbus acid in solution:
PbS + 4HCl → H2PbCl4 + H2S
Two types of reactions occur with nitric acid depending on the concentration of the acid. Lead sulfide dissolves in dilute nitric acid, oxidizing to elemental sulfur:
PbS + 2HNO3 → Pb(NO3)2 + S + H2
However, treatment with concentrated nitric acid yields lead(II) sulfate:
PbS + 4HNO3 → PbSO4 + 4HNO2
Lead sulfide also undergoes various oxidation reactions at elevated temperatures that occur in a reverberatory furnace, during the production of lead from galena. Sulfur dioxide and lead sulfate are formed as intermediate products. Some typical reactions are as follows:
PbS + 2O2e→PbSO4
2PbS + 3O2→2PbO + 2SO2
PbS + 2PbO→3Pb + SO2
PbS + PbSO4→2Pb + 2SO2
When roasted in an air blast furnace, basic lead sulfate, PbO•PbSO4 (also known as sublimed white lead), is formed.
- Chemical PropertiesLead(II) sulfide is a silvery to black crystalline powder.
Lead(II) sulfide can be precipitated from a solution of lead (II) salt and hydrogen sulfide.
Lead (II) sulfide has been used during many years as source of lead (Pb). The main method to obtain the lead is the smelting of PbS and then, the lead (II) oxide obtained is reduced to Pb and carbon monoxide:
2 PbS + 3 O2 → 2 PbO + 2 SO2
PbO + C → Pb + CO
Moreover, lead (II) sulfide is used as semiconductor and photoconductor due its chemical proprieties. It is also used as black pigment. In recent years, it has been used in to obtain nanoparticles to use in electronic or electric devices.
- Chemical PropertiesLead gray in color, lead-gray streak, metallic luster, good cubic cleavage. Mohs hardness 2.5. Soluble in strong nitric acid, in excess of hot hydrochloric acid.
- UsesGlazing earthenware.
- Definitiongalena: A mineral form of lead(II)sulphide, PbS, crystallizing in thecubic system; the chief ore of lead. Itusually occurs as grey metallic cubes,frequently in association with silver,arsenic, copper, zinc, and antimony.Important deposits occur in Australia(at Broken Hill), Germany, the USA(especially in Missouri, Kansas, andOklahoma), and the UK.
- Reactivity ProfileThe reaction between iodine monochloride and any of the following is vigorous: cadmium sulfide, LEAD(II) SULFIDE, silver sulfide, or zinc sulfide [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:502. 1956].
- Health HazardINHALATION OR INGESTION: Abdominal pain, loss of appetite, weight loss, constipation, apathy or irritability, vomiting, fatigue, headache, weakness metallic taste and muscle incoordination. Lead line on gums. EYES: Irritation. May cause corneal destruction. SKIN: Pain and severe burns.
- Fire HazardBehavior in Fire: At fire temperatures emits highly toxic and irritating sulfur oxides.
- Potential ExposureLead sulfide is used in ceramics, infrared radiation detectors, and semiconductors.
- ShippingUN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required. UN3288 Toxic solids, inorganic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1- Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required.
- IncompatibilitiesIncompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides, and iodine monochloride. Sulfides react with acids to produce toxic and flammable vapors of hydrogen sulfide.
Lead(II) sulfide Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Preparation ProductsLead acetate trihydrate
- LEAD ZIRCONATE LEAD TITANIUM OXIDE LEAD ANTIMONIDE LEAD(II) PERCHLORATE TRIHYDRATE BIS(2,2,6,6-TETRAMETHYL-3,5-HEPTANEDIONATO)LEAD(II) Lead acetate trihydrate Lead(II) nitrate Lead tetraacetate LEAD(II) ACETYLACETONATE Lead monoxide LEAD(II) CITRATE TRIHYDRATE Lead(II) iodide LEAD (II) HEXAFLUOROACETYLACETONATE Lead fluoride LEAD(II) BROMIDE TETRAPHENYLLEAD Lead (II) Chloride Lead(II) sulfide
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