Caffeine Chemical Properties
- Melting point:234-236.5 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:178°C
- Density 1.23
- FEMA 2224 | CAFFEINE
- refractive index 1.6590 (estimate)
- Flash point:178°C
- storage temp. 2-8°C
- solubility Sparingly soluble in water, freely soluble in boiling water, slightly soluble in ethanol (96 per cent). It dissolves in concentrated solutions of alkali benzoates or salicylates.
- form Crystals or Crystalline Powder
- pkapKa 0.6 (Uncertain)
- color Silky white or white
- PHpH (10g/l, 25℃) : 5.5～6.5
- Water Solubility 20 g/L (20 ºC)
- Merck 14,1636
- Sublimation 178 ºC
- BRN 17705
- Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, strong bases, strong oxidizing agents, iodine, silver salts, tannins. Weakly light sensitive in solution.
- CAS DataBase Reference58-08-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
- IARC3 (Vol. 51) 1991
- NIST Chemistry ReferenceCaffeine(58-08-2)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemCaffeine (58-08-2)
- Hazard Codes Xn,T,F
- Risk Statements 22-25-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11
- Safety Statements 16-36/37-45-7
- RIDADR UN 1544 6.1/PG 3
- WGK Germany 1
- RTECS EV6475000
- F 10
- TSCA Yes
- HazardClass 6.1
- PackingGroup III
- HS Code 29393000
- Hazardous Substances Data58-08-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
- ToxicityLD50 orally in mice, hamsters, rats, rabbits (mg/kg): 127, 230, 355, 246 (males); 137, 249, 247, 224 (females) (Palm)
Caffeine Usage And Synthesis
- DescriptionCaffeine is an alkaloid purine belonging to the group of organic compounds called methylxanthines. Pure caffeine is a white, crystalline, bitter-tasting compound. Caffeine is found in a number of plants, principally coffee and tea plants, as well as cola and cacao nuts. In plants, caffeine functions as a natural pesticide to deter insects.
- Chemical Propertieswhite to light yellow crystal powder
- Chemical PropertiesCaffeine is the alkaloid 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine. It is one of the xanthine derivatives present up to 1.5% in seeds of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and up to 5% in the leaves of tea (Camelia sinensis). It is a component of the beverages made from these plants. Caffeine is also a component of chocolate (Theobroma cacao) and the cola nut (Cola acuminata Schott and Endel. and related species), the extract of which is used in cola drinks. It is virtually odorless. Caffeine is added to cola-type beverages for its enhancement of flavor. Subtle and subliminal flavors are widely appreciated by consumers and caffeine has a modifying effect on other components of the beverage. The threshold for detecting the presence of caffeine in liquid foods varies depending on the nature of other substances present, but lies close to the level characteristic of currently produced cola-type beverages. The threshold for detection of caffeine in water has been shown to be 0.0095%; in liquid foods, 0.0184%. In one study, panelists could distinguish a solution containing 0.0058% caffeine from the control. The threshold for detecting taste difference between an aqueous solution of caffeine and a water control was also shown to be 0.005% caffeine and to distinguish bitterness, 0.011% caffeine. In aqueous solutions containing threshold and subthreshold concentrations of caffeine, sucrose, citric acid and salt, all compounds depressed the taste intensity of each other.*
- OriginatorCaffedrine,Thompson Med.
- OccurrenceReported found in coffee and guarana.
- HistoryRunge isolated caff eine from coffee in 1819. Caffeine derives its name from the Kaffa region of Ethiopia. Caffeine comes from the German kaffeine, which in turn is derived from the German word for coffee, kaffee. In 1827, a compound isolated from tea was named theine, but this was eventually shown to be caffeine.
- UsesCaffeine has widespread therapeutic use. It is widely used in headache (migraine) remedies such as aspirin and other analgesics. Caffeine is a mild vasoconstrictor and its ability to constrict blood vessels serving the brain explains its use to relieve headache. Caffeine is a common substance in medications to treat apnea in premature infants. Apparently, the area of the brain controlling respiration in premature infants is not fully developed and caffeine helps to stimulate this portion of the brain. The combination of caffeine and ephedrine is used in dietary and athletic supplements, and their role as appetite suppressant and energy boosters has been extensively studied.
- UsesCaffeine is consumed in coffee, tea, cocoa,chocolate, and soft drinks. It occurs naturallyin the leaves of coffee, tea, and mate and in ′cola nuts. It is used in medicine and found inmany drugs. It is used as a cardiac stimulant.
- Usescaffeine has a lipolytic effect on fatty cells, able to break down lipids and release fatty acids. given this ability and its draining properties, caffeine is used for skin firming and tightening. It is often incorporated into body product formulations targeting cellulite and slimming, as well as in eye creams that claim to reduce puffiness. Among its constituents are tannin and the alkaloid methylxanthine. Caffeine is a bitter-tasting, odorless white powder that occurs naturally in coffee, cola, guana paste, kola nuts, and tea. It is obtained as a by-product of decaffeinated coffee.
- UsesCaffeine is a white powder or needles that are odorless and have a bitter taste. it occurs naturally in tea leaves, coffee, cocoa, and cola nuts. it is a food additive used in soft drinks for its mildly stimulat- ing effect and distinctive taste note. it is used in cola-type beverages and is optional in other soft drinks up to 0.02%.
- UsesCaffeine is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that acts as a stimulant drug and a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Caffeine is found in varying quantities in the seeds, leaves, and fruit of some plants, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding on the plants. In humans, caffeine acts as a central nervous system stimulant, temporarily warding off drowsiness and restoring alertness. Caffeine is a cardiac and respiratory stimulant; diuretic. Caffeine is toxic at sufficiently high doses.
- UsesCNS stimulant respiratory stimulant;adenosine receptors antagonist
- DefinitionChEBI: A trimethylxanthine in which the three methyl groups are located at positions 1, 3, and 7. A purine alkaloid that occurs naturally in tea and coffee.
- Manufacturing ProcessCaffeine was synthesized by the reaction N-chloromethylation of theophylline by action dimethylsulphate in dimethylsulfoxide.
- brand nameNoDoz Caplets and Chewable Tablets (Bristol-Myers Products).
- Therapeutic FunctionNeurotropic, Central stimulant
- Aroma threshold valuesDetection at 29 to 300 ppm. Also see description.
- Taste threshold valuesSee Description.
- General DescriptionOdorless white powder or white glistening needles, usually melted together. Bitter taste. Solutions in water are neutral to litmus. Odorless.
- Air & Water ReactionsEfflorescent in air. Water soluble.
- Reactivity ProfileCaffeine may be hygroscopic. Aqueous solutions (1.12 mg/mL) are stable for three weeks at 41° F if protected from light. In normal room lighting and at room temperature, solutions are stable for 3 days. Solutions of Caffeine in water, DMSO, 95% ethanol or acetone should be stable for 24 hours under normal lab conditions. REACTIVITY: Caffeine may react with strong oxidizing agents. Caffeine is also incompatible with iodine, silver salts and tannins. Caffeine is a very weak base. Caffeine is decomposed by strong solutions of caustic alkalis.
- HazardOne grain or more is toxic, 200 μg/m L has been found to inhibit activity of the enzyme DNA polymerase. Use in soft drinks not to exceed 0.02%. Questionable carcinogen.
- Health HazardCaffeine is a stimulant of the central nervoussystem. It eliminates fatigue and drowsiness. However, high doses cause gastrointestinal motility, restlessness, sleeplessness,nervousness, and tremor. Acute poisoningeffects include nausea, vomiting, headache,excitability, tremor, and sometimes, convulsive coma. Other symptoms may be respiratory depression, muscle contraction, distortedperception, and hallucination. Ingestion of15–20 g may be fatal to humans.
LD50 value, oral (mice): 127 mg/kg
LD50 value, oral (rabbits): 224 mg/kg
Animal studies indicate that caffeine athigh doses produces adverse reproductiveeffects, causing developmental abnormalities. It tested negative in the histidine reversion–Ames and TRP reversion tests.
- Fire HazardFlash point data for Caffeine are not available; however, Caffeine is probably combustible.
- Biological ActivityCentral nervous system stimulant. Antagonist at A 1 and A 2A adenosine receptors and inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. Mobilises calcium from intracellular stores and inhibits benzodiazepine binding to GABA receptors.
- Safety ProfileA human poison by ingestion. An experimental poison by ingestion, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, intramuscular, rectal, and intravenous routes. Human systemic effects: ataxia, blood pressure elevation, change in heart rate, changes in tubules, convulsions or effect on seizure threshold, dtarrhea, distorted perceptions, hallucinations, hypermotility, muscle contraction, musculoskeletal tumors, nausea or vomiting, toxic psychosis, tremors. A human teratogen causing developmental abnormalities of the craniofacial and musculoskeletal systems, pregnancy termination (abortion), and stillbirth. Human maternal effects include an unspecified effect on labor or chddbirth. Human mutation data reported. An experimental teratogen. Other experimental reproductive effects. Questionable carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic data. Large doses (above 1.0 g> cause palpitation, excitement, insomnia, dtzziness, headache, and vomiting. Continued excessive use of caffeine in tea or coffee may lead to digestive disturbances, constipation, palpitations, shortness of breath, and depressed mental states. It is also implicated in cardiac disorders under those condttions. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx
- Chemical SynthesisUsually obtained from tea dust in which it is present up to 5% or as a by-product from the manufacture of caffeine-free coffee; synthetically prepared starting with dimethylurea and malonic acid.
- Purification MethodsCaffeine crystallises from water or absolute EtOH. [Beilstein 26 III/IV 2338.]
Caffeine Preparation Products And Raw materials
- EC 188.8.131.52 2-Butanone TRIMETHYL PHLOROGLUCINOL 2,6-Dimethyl-7-octen-2-ol Inosine Norgestrel Caffeine IMP 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone Mesotrione 4-Methyl-2-pentanone Purine (Trifluoromethyl)trimethylsilane Tetramethylammonium hydroxide pentahydrate Trimethylolpropane Tris Base 6-Methoxyguanine 6-Hydroxypurine