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Androgen and anabolic hormones

Androgen mainly refers to a class of endocrine hormones synthesized by the gonads (testis). Testis cells for the synthesis of androgen are interstitial cells. In addition, the adrenal cortex can also synthesize a certain amount of androgen while ovaries can also synthesize trace amounts of androgen.

Androgen has effects of promoting the development of male secondary sexual organs such as the epididymis, prostate and penile, stimulating the male secondary sexual characteristics such as the emergence of beard and pubes and maintain male sexuality and so on. In addition, it also plays a regulatory role in systemic metabolism. The androgen has a strong effect of promotion of protein synthesis to make the body be in the positive nitrogen balance state, which is particularly prominent in children, such as promoting skeletal muscle development, promoting the deposition of the skeletal calcium so that the bone can be thickened and gain further growth. It also has effects of increasing basal metabolism and stimulating the generation of erythrocytes.

Mechanism of action Now it is generally thought that the androgen testosterone can enter into the prostate, epididymis and other target cells to be converted into 5α-dihydrotestosterone which can non-covalently cytoplasm specific receptor in the non-covalent binding, and by the formation of the active conformation change complex, and then into the nucleus in the chromatin Of the non-histone, thereby promoting the synthesis of certain ribonucleic acid and protein play a role. Androgen can promote RNA polymerase and amino acyltransferase and promote the hexokinase and phosphofructokinase in the glycolysis. Furthermore, it can promote the mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, and thus supplying the energy required for cell synthesis and metabolism.

There are some kinds of testosterone derivatives with the androgen activity being greatly weakened while anabolism is still retained or even enhanced. These compounds are called anabolic hormones. Anabolic hormones have significant effects of promoting protein synthesis, stimulating muscle development, increase the weight and promote the synthesis of immune globulin, being able to enhance the body's immune function and anti-infective ability. It can also stimulate the hematopoietic function of bone marrow, promote the renal secretin, and induce the production of erythropoietin and the synthesis of bone marrow methemoglobin. It is clinically mostly used for the treatment of aplastic anemia and elderly osteoporosis.

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