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アジ化ナトリウム

アジ化ナトリウム 化学構造式
26628-22-8
  • CAS番号.26628-22-8
  • 化学名:アジ化ナトリウム
  • 别名:アジ化ナトリウム;アジドナトリウム;ナトリウムアザイド;毒物 アジ化ナトリウム;窒化ナトリウム;アジ化ナトリウム(ナトリウムアジド);アジ化ナトリウム 0.1 M 溶液;アジ化ナトリウム, 99%;アジ化ナトリウム, 98%
  • 英語化学名:Sodium azide
  • 英語别名:azium;Smite;kazoe;u-3886;nsc3072;nemazyd;nci-c06462;azydeksodu;Azidosodium;SODIUMAZIDO
  • CBNumber:CB1853409
  • Molecular Formula:N3Na
  • Formula Weight:65.01
  • MOL File:26628-22-8.mol
アジ化ナトリウム 物理性質
  • 融点  :275 °C
  • 沸点  :300 °C
  • 比重(密度)  :1.85
  • 闪点  :300 °C
  • 貯蔵温度  :2-8°C
  • 溶解性 :H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
  • 外見  :Powder/Solid
  • 酸解離定数(Pka) :pK = 4.8, aq solns contains HN3 which escapes readily at 37°
  • 色 :White to off-white
  • 比重 :1.85
  • 臭い (Odor) :Odorless solid
  • 水溶解度  :420 g/L (17 ºC)
  • Sensitive  :Air & Moisture Sensitive
  • Merck  :14,8581
  • 暴露限界値 :Ceiling 0.3 mg/m3 in air (ACGIH).
  • 安定性: :Unstable. Avoid heat, sources of ignition, moisture, shock, friction. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, mineral acids, water, halogen acids and halogen compounds, barium carbonate, bromine, carbon disulphide, mercury, dimethyl sulphate, common metals, especially brass, copper, lead, silver, strong acids.
  • CAS データベース :26628-22-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • EPAの化学物質情報 :Sodium azide (Na(N3))(26628-22-8)
安全性情報
危険有害性情報のコード(GHS)
  • 絵表示(GHS)
  • 注意喚起語Danger
  • 危険有害性情報
  • H300:飲み込むと生命に危険
  • H400:水生生物に強い毒性
  • H410:長期的影響により水生生物に非常に強い毒性
  • 注意書き
  • P264:取扱い後は皮膚をよく洗うこと。
  • P264:取扱い後は手や顔をよく洗うこと。
  • P270:この製品を使用する時に、飲食または喫煙をしないこ と。
  • P321:特別な処置が必要である(このラベルの... を見よ)。
  • P405:施錠して保管すること。

Sodium azide 化学特性,用途語,生産方法

  • 外観 白色〜ほとんど白色, 結晶性粉末又は塊
  • 溶解性 水に溶けやすく、エタノール及びジエチルエーテルにほとんど溶けない。
  • 用途 診断薬、爆発原料、有機合成原料、自動車用エアーバッグの推進薬
  • 用途 還元剤、発色試薬、金属アジ化物製造原料、調製液原料(安定剤、防腐剤)。有機合成(和光試薬時報Vol.66 No.2,p.21(1998)、Vol.65 No.4,p.30(1997))。
  • 化学的特性 Colorless, hexagonal crystals. Decom- poses at about 300C. Soluble in water and in liquid ammonia; slightly soluble in alcohol; hydrolyzes to form hydrazoic acid. Combustible.
  • 化学的特性 Sodium azide is a colorless to white, odorless, crystalline solid. Combustible solid above 300°C.
  • 使用 Biomedical Sciences
    Sodium azide is a biocide that is used in making chemical preservatives that are used in laboratories and hospitals. In hospitals, it is used as a preservative in blood tests and diagnostic machines. Since the chemical is soluble, it can act as useful metabolic inhibitors that can affect the activities of numerous oxidative enzymes. Specifically, it inhibits oxidative enzymes that are involved in electron transport system respiration. However, accidents have occurred whenever sodium azide is used in a hospital setting; therefore, major bodies such as the CDC that deal with chemicals do not advise the use of the compound.
    Automobiles Airbags
    Before the 1990s, sodium azide was used in airbags. In airbags, when electricity heats sodium azide to approximately 300oC, it decomposes into two simple components, namely sodium and nitrogen gas. The decomposition of sodium azide happens very fast that the filling of the airbag with nitrogen gas occurs at a velocity of around 200 miles per hour.
    Agriculture
    Sodium azide is used for pest control due to its ready solubility in water. Nitrifying bacteria acts as a catalyst that decomposes the sodium azide solution to release nitrate, HN3, and NH4+ when added to the soil. It is noteworthy that these components have wide range of activity against nematodes, weeds, and phytopathogenic fungi that is soil-borne. The chemical is typically applied through drip irrigation to avoid reactivity of HN3 in the soil-air space that can eventually result in an active compound that can be ineffective for pest control.
    Detonators
    When combined with other metals such as copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg), sodium azide becomes unstable and explosive. As such, it is mostly used as detonators due to its explosive nature.
    A summary of main uses is listed in the table below:
    • Industry
    • Application
    • Role/benefit
    • Chemical manufacture
    • Preparation of other inorganic azide compounds, such as lead azide and silver azide
    • Precursor
    • Preparation of organic azide compounds
    • Azidation agent
    • Agriculture
    • Pest control of soil-borne pathogens
    • Biocide
    • Crop selection of plants such as rice,barley or oats
    • Mutagen
    • Pharmaceutical
    • Preparation of tetrazoles pharmaceutical intermediates
    • Raw material
    • Airbags
    • Automobile airbags and aircraft safety chutes
    • Gas source/generates n2 after automobile crash
    • Antisepsis and sterilization
    • Preservation of bulk reagents and stock solutions in hospitals and laboratories
    • Biocide/inhibits the cytochrome oxidase in gram-negative bacteria
    • Photographic emulsion
    • Preservative/works without influencing the performance of photographic emulsion
    • Explosive
    • Manufacture of detonating agent(lead azide)
    • Raw material
    • Others
    • Manufacture of synthetic resin
    • Foaming agent/generates N2 during the reaction
    • Manufacture of Na
    • Raw material/2NaN3→2Na+3N2
     
  • 使用 Sodium azide is used in making othermetal azides, therapeutically to control bloodpressure, as a propellant for automotivesafety bags, as a preservative for laboratoryreagents, as an analytical reagent, andin organic synthesis. It is also used as anantifading reagent for immunofluorescence(Boeck et al. 1985).
  • 定義 sodium azide: A white or colourlesscrystalline solid, NaN3, soluble inwater and slightly soluble in alcohol;hexagonal; r.d. 1.846; decomposes onheating. It is made by the action ofnitrogen(I) oxide on hot sodamide(NaNH2) and is used as an organicreagent and in the manufacture ofdetonators.
  • 反応プロフィール Sodium azide is unstable. Decomposes rapidly or explosively at about 300°C [Hawley]. May explode if shocked. Forms violently explosive products if exposed to carbon disulfide. Can be sensitized toward decomposition by metal salts (especially heavy metal salts such as silver chloride) or by traces of strong acids [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 298].
  • 危険性 Highly toxic. Lung damage and cardiac impairment. Questionable carcinogen.
  • 健康ハザード Can cause death by affecting the central nervous system. Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes.
  • 健康ハザード Sodium azide is a highly toxic compound;the order of toxicity is the same as that ofhydrazoic acid. It is converted to hydrazoicacid in water. The aqueous solutions ofsodium azide contains hydrazoic acid, whichescapes at 37°C (98°F), presenting a dangerof inhalation toxicity.
    Sodium azide, by itself, is a severe acutetoxicant causing hypotension, headache,tachpnea, hypothermia, and convulsion.The toxic symptoms from ingestion of100–200 mg in humans may result inheadache, respiratory distress, hypermotility,and diarrhea. An oral intake of 10–20 g may be fatal to humans. The target organsare primarily the central nervous system andbrain. There are reports on azide poisoningof brain and nerve tissue (ACGIH 1986;Mettler 1972). Owing to the availability ofelectron pairs in azide ion for coordinatebonding, azide forms strong complexes withhemoglobin, which blocks oxygen transportto the blood (Alben and Fager 1972).
    LD50 value, oral (rats): 27 mg/kg
    Sodium azide is strongly mutagenic in theAmes test. However, it shows a very weakmutagenic effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiaeC658-K42 (Morita et al. 1989). Macoret al. (1985) found that light decreased themutagenic effect of sodium azide to inducehereditary bleaching of Euglena gracilis.Carcinogenicity of this compound on animalsor humans has not yet been fully established,although skin and endocrine tumors in ratshave been observer (NIOSH 1986).
  • 健康ハザード The acute toxicity of sodium azide is high. Symptoms of exposure include lowered blood pressure, headache, hypothermia, and in the case of serious overexposure, convulsions and death. Ingestion of 100 to 200 mg in humans may result in headache, respiratory distress, and diarrhea. Target organs are primarily the central nervous system and brain. Sodium azide rapidly hydrolyzes in water to form hydrazoic acid, a highly toxic gas that can escape from solution, presenting a serious inhalation hazard. Symptoms of acute exposure to hydrazoic acid include eye irritation, headache, dramatic decrease in blood pressure, weakness, pulmonary edema, and collapse. Solutions of sodium azide can be absorbed through the skin. Sodium azide has not been found to be carcinogenic in humans. Chronic, low-level exposure may cause nose irritation, episodes of falling blood pressure, dizziness, and bronchitis.
  • 火災危険 When heated to decomposition, Sodium azide emits very toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides; explosive. Forms explosive-sensitive materials with some metals such as lead, silver, mercury or copper. May form toxic hydrazoic acid fumes in fire. Containers may explode in fire. Avoid acids, benzoyl chloride and potassium hydroxide; bromine; carbon disulfide; copper; lead; nitric acid; barium carbonate; sulfuric acid; chromium (II) hypochlorite, dimethyl sulfate, water, dibromomalononitrile, lead, silver, copper, mercury. Hazardous polymerization may not occur.
  • 火災危険 Flammability hazard is low, but violent decomposition can occur when heated to 275 °C. Decomposition products include oxides of nitrogen and sodium oxide.
  • 安全性プロファイル Poison by ingestion, skin contact, intraperitoneal, intravenous, and subcutaneous routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion: general anesthesia, somnolence, and hdney changes. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Human mutation data reported. Violent reaction with benzoyl chloride combined with KOH, Br2, barium carbonate, CS2, Cr(OCl)2, Cu, Pb, HNO3, BaCO3, H2SO4, hot water, (CH3)2SO4, dibromomalononitrile, sulfuric acid. Incompatible with acids, ammonium chloride + trichloroacetonitrile, phosgene, cyanuric chloride ,2,5 -dinitro3 methylbenzoic acid + oleum, trifluroroacryloyl chloride. Reacts with heavy metals (e.g., brass, copper, lead) to form dangerously explosive heavy metal azides, a particular problem in laboratory equipment and drain traps. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of NOx and Na2O. See also AZIDES.
  • 職業ばく露 Sodium azide is used as preservative and diluent. It has been used for a wide variety of military, laboratory, medicine, and commercial purposes. It is used extensively as an intermediate in the production of lead azide, commonly used in detonators, and other explosives. Reported to be used in automobile air-bag inflation. One of the largest potential exposure is that to automotive workers, repairmen, and wreckers, if sodium azide is used as the inflation chemical. Commercial applications include use as a fungicide, nematocide, and soil sterilizing agent and as a preservative for seeds and wine. The lumber industry has used sodium azide to limit the growth of enzymes responsible for formation of brown stain on sugar pine, while the Japanese beer industry used it to prevent the growth of a fungus which darkens its product. The chemical industry has used sodium azide as a retarder in the manufacture of sponge rubber, to prevent coagulation of styrene and butadiene latexes stored in contact with metals; and to decompose nitrites in the presence of nitrates.
  • 応急処置 If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. If victim is conscious, administer water, or milk. Do not induce vomiting. Medical observation is recommended for 24 to 48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy.
  • 貯蔵 In particular, work with sodium azide should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and appropriate impermeable gloves and splash goggles should be worn at all times to prevent skin and eye contact. Containers of sodium azide should be stored in secondary containers in a cool, dry place separated from acids.
  • 輸送方法 UN1687 Sodium azide, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.
  • 純化方法 Crystallise sodium azide from hot water or from water by adding absolute EtOH or acetone. Also purify it by repeated crystallisation from an aqueous solution saturated at 90o by cooling it to 10o, and adding an equal volume of EtOH. The crystals are washed with acetone, and the azide is dried at room temperature under vacuum for several hours in an Abderhalden pistol. Its solubility in H2O is 42% at 18o, and in EtOH it is 0.22% at 0o. [Das et al. J Chem Soc, Faraday Trans 1 78 3485 1982, Schenk in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I pp 474-475 1963, Browne Inorg Synth 1 79 1939, Frierson Inorg Synth II 139 1946.] HIGHLY POISONOUS and potentially explosive.
  • 不和合性 Reacts explosively and/or forms explosive and/or shock sensitive compounds with acids and many metals. Contact with water forms hydrazoic acid. Combustible solid (if heated above 275C). May explode when heated above its melting point, especially if heating is rapid. Reacts with acids; producing toxic, shock-sensitive, and explosive hydrogen azide. It forms explosive compounds with phosgene, brass, zinc, trifluoroacrylol fluoride, and nitrogendiluted bromine vapor. Reacts with benzoyl chloride and potassium hydroxide, bromine, carbon disulfide; copper, lead, nitric acid; barium carbonate; sulfuric acid; chromium (II) hypochlorite; dimethyl sulfate; dibromomalononitrile, silver, mercury. Over a period of time, sodium azide may react with copper, lead, brass, or solder in plumbing systems to form an accumulation of the highly explosive and shock-sensitive compounds of lead azide and copper azide
  • 燃焼性と爆発性 Flammability hazard is low, but violent decomposition can occur when heated to 275 °C. Decomposition products include oxides of nitrogen and sodium oxide.
  • 廃棄物の処理 Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform to EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Disposal may be accomplished by reaction with sulfuric acid solution and sodium nitrate in a hard rubber vessel.Nitrogen dioxide is generated by this reaction and the gas is run through a scrubber before it is released to the atmosphere. Controlled incineration is also acceptable (after mixing with other combustible wastes) with adequate scrubbing and ash disposal facilities.
  • 使用上の注意 酸性溶液を加熱すると有害なアジ化水素を発生する。
アジ化ナトリウム 上流と下流の製品情報
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26628-22-8, アジ化ナトリウム キーワード:
  • 26628-22-8
  • Sodium azide,azium
  • SodiuM azide, 99+%, for biocheMistry
  • azoturedesodium
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  • Additive Screening Solution 45/Fluka kit no 78374, Sodium azide solution
  • natriummajide
  • natriummazide
  • アジ化ナトリウム
  • アジドナトリウム
  • ナトリウムアザイド
  • 毒物 アジ化ナトリウム
  • 窒化ナトリウム
  • アジ化ナトリウム(ナトリウムアジド)
  • アジ化ナトリウム 0.1 M 溶液
  • アジ化ナトリウム, 99%
  • アジ化ナトリウム, 98%
  • ナトリウム化合物 (単純なナトリウム塩を除く)
  • 典型金属化合物
  • 構造分類
  • 金属別化合物