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12125-02-9

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Identification

Name
Ammonium chloride
CAS
12125-02-9
Synonyms
ACTIVITY STANDARD FOR AMMONIA ELECTRODE
AMMONIA STANDARD
AMMONII CHLORIDUM
AMMONIUM CHLORIDE
AMMONIUM CHLORIDE, 5.4 G/L
AMMONIUM CHLORIDE BUFFER
AMMONIUM CHLORIDE TS
AMMONIUM MURIATE
AMMONIUM NITROGEN
AMMONIUM-NITROGEN STANDARD
AMMONIUM STANDARD SOLUTION
AMMONIUM VOLUMETRIC STANDARD
FILLING SOLUTION FOR AMMONIA ELECTRODE
FILLING SOLUTION FOR SODIUM ELECTRODE
NH4CL
NITROGEN-AMMONIA STANDARD
NITROGEN STANDARD
SAL AMMONIAC
SALMIAC
SALT AMMONIAC
EINECS(EC#)
235-186-4
Molecular Formula
ClH4N
MDL Number
MFCD00011420
Molecular Weight
53.49
MOL File
12125-02-9.mol

Chemical Properties

Appearance
Ammonium chloride is a white crystalline solid. Odorless.
Appearance
white crystalline powder
Melting point 
340 °C (subl.) (lit.)
mp 
340 °C (subl.)(lit.)

Boiling point 
100 °C750 mm Hg

bp 
100 °C750 mm Hg

density 
1.52
vapor density 
1.9 (vs air)

vapor pressure 
1 mm Hg ( 160.4 °C)

FEMA 
4494 | AMMONIA (ALSO INCLUDES AMMONIUM CHLORIDE)
refractive index 
1.642
storage temp. 
Store at RT.
solubility 
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless

form 
Solid
color 
White
Specific Gravity
1.53
PH
4.7 (200g/l, H2O, 25℃)(External MSDS)
Stability:
Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, strong bases.
Water Solubility 
soluble
Sensitive 
Hygroscopic
λmax
λ: 260 nm Amax: ≤0.021
λ: 280 nm Amax: ≤0.019
Merck 
14,509
BRN 
4371014
Uses
Ammonium Chloride is a dough conditioner and yeast food that exists as colorless crystals or white crystalline powder. approximately 30–38 g dissolves in water at 25°c. the ph of a 1% solution at 25°c is 5.2. it is used as a dough strengthener and flavor enhancer in baked goods and as a nitrogen source for yeast fermentation. it is also used in condiments and relishes. another term for the salt is ammonium muriate.
Uses
ammonium chloride is used as a thickener and as an additive in non-alcoholic toners. According to cosmetic formulators, the ammonium component provides the tingling or stinging sensation that some people associate with toners or aftershaves, and which, in regular toners, is usually provided by the alcohol content. Ammonium chloride’s use is the result of preference in formulation feel.
Uses
White crystals made by ammonia salts acting upon hydrochloric acid followed by crystallization. Ammonium chloride is also known as sal ammoniac. Soluble in water and alcohol, ammonium chloride was used as a halide in many processes, including the salted paper, albumen paper, albumen opaltype, and gelatin emulsion processes.
CAS DataBase Reference
12125-02-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Ammonium chloride(12125-02-9)
EPA Substance Registry System
12125-02-9(EPA Substance)

Safety Data

Hazard Codes 
Xn
Risk Statements 
R22:Harmful if swallowed.
R36:Irritating to the eyes.
R41:Risk of serious damage to eyes.
R37/38:Irritating to respiratory system and skin .
Safety Statements 
S22:Do not breathe dust .
S36:Wear suitable protective clothing .
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
RIDADR 
UN 3077 9 / PGIII
WGK Germany 
1

RTECS 
BP4550000

Autoignition Temperature
>400 °C
TSCA 
Yes
HazardClass 
9
PackingGroup 
III
HS Code 
28271000
Safety Profile
Poison by subcutaneous, intravenous, and intramuscular routes. Moderately toxic by other routes. A severe eye irritant. Mutation data reported. Explosive reaction with potassium chlorate or bromine trifluoride. Violent reaction (ignition) with bromine pentafluoride, NH4, Nos, and IF7. Reaction with hydrogen cyanide may give the explosive nitrogen trichloride. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of NO,, Cl-, and NH3.
Hazardous Substances Data
12125-02-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity
LD50 in rats (mg/kg): 30 i.m. (Boyd, Seymour); LD50 in rats (mg/kg): 1650 orally (Smeets)

Raw materials And Preparation Products

Raw materials
Hydrochloric acid-->Sodium sulfate-->Sodium chloride-->Ammonia-->CARBON DIOXIDE-->Ammonium bicarbonate-->4-Chlorobenzaldehyde-->Hydroquinone-->Potassium chloride -->Ammonium sulfate-->Ammonium nitrate--> HEAVY CUT RESIDUE OIL-->Propylene carbonate
Preparation Products
Iridium-->Ethyl benzoylformate-->3-PYRIDINECARBOXAMIDINE-->2-Furaldehyde diethyl acetal-->Tricyclohexyl phosphine-->4-PYRIDINECARBOXAMIDINE-->TRIHEXYLPHOSPHINE-->Ammonium dichromate-->CYCLOLEUCINOL-->Methyl 3-aminosulfonylthiophene-2-carboxylate-->1-Naphthyl isocyanate-->3-METHYLTHIOPHENE-2-CARBOXAMIDE-->Kanamycin sulfate-->Dye-fixing agent M-->4-AMIDINOPYRIDINIUM CHLORIDE-->2-NAPHTHYL ISOCYANATE-->2-Chloro-5-chloromethylthiophene-->2-Formylfuran-5-boronic acid-->4-NITROBENZAMIDINE, HYDROCHLORIDE-->4-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE-->2-AMINO-4,6-DIMETHYL-3-PYRIDINECARBOXAMIDE-->Pyridine-2-carboximidamide hydrochloride-->2,5-Dichlorothiophene-3-sulfonamide-->Praseodymium-Zircon Yellow-->Elastase-->interferon-gamma-1a-->5-(AMINOMETHYL)-5-METHYLPYRROLIDIN-2-ONE-->4-METHOXYBENZAMIDINE, HYDROCHLORIDE-->4-METHOXY-BENZAMIDINE-->4-Chlorobenzene-1-carboximidamide hydrochloride-->4-METHYL-BENZAMIDINE-->4-Methylbenzene-1-carboximidamide hydrochloride-->Amino tris(methylene phosphonic acid)-->THIOTHIAMINE-->color fixing agent Y-->1,3-DICHLORO-2-BUTENE-->1-PHENYL-3-THIOSEMICARBAZIDE-->xylene isomerization catalysts-->new type low toxic urea-formalde-hyde adhesive A-01-B-->3,4-Dichloro-1,2,5-thiadiazole

Hazard Information

General Description
AMMONIUM CHLORIDE(12125-02-9) is a white crystalline solid. AMMONIUM CHLORIDE(12125-02-9) is soluble in water(37%). The primary hazard is the threat posed to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit its spread to the environment. AMMONIUM CHLORIDE(12125-02-9) is used to make other ammonium compounds, as a soldering flux, as a fertilizer, and for many other uses.
Reactivity Profile
Acidic salts, such as AMMONIUM CHLORIDE, are generally soluble in water. The resulting solutions contain moderate concentrations of hydrogen ions and have pH's of less than 7.0. They react as acids to neutralize bases. These neutralizations generate heat, but less or far less than is generated by neutralization of inorganic acids, inorganic oxoacids, and carboxylic acid. They usually do not react as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents but such behavior is not impossible. Many of these compounds catalyze organic reactions.
Air & Water Reactions
Soluble in water. Slowly releases hydrogen chloride [USCG, 1999].
Hazard
Eye and upper respiratory tract irritant.
Health Hazard
Inhalation of fumes irritates respiratory passages. Ingestion irritates mouth and stomach. Fumes are irritating to eyes. Contact with skin may cause irritation.
Potential Exposure
Ammonium chloride is used as an industrial chemical, pharmaceutical, and veterinary drug; to make dry batteries; in galvanizing; as a soldering flux.
First aid
If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.
Shipping
UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.
Incompatibilities
Acids, alkalis, and silver salts.
Waste Disposal
Pretreatment involves addition of sodium hydroxide to liberate ammonia and form the soluble sodium salt. The liberated ammonia can be recovered and sold. After dilution to the permitted provisional limit, the sodium salt can be discharged into a stream or sewer.
Physical properties
Colorless cubic crystals or white granular powder; saline taste; odorless; hygroscopic; does not melt but sublimes on heating at 340°C; vapor pressure 48.75 torr at 250°C and 251.2 torr at 300°C; density 1.5274 g/cm3 at 25°C; refractive index 1.642; readily dissolves in water, solubility: 229 g and 271 g/L solution at O°C and 20°C, respectively; solubility lowered by alkali metal chlorides and HCl; dissolution lowers the temperature of the solution; sparingly soluble in alcohols (6 g/L at 19°C) and soluble in liquid NH3; insoluble in acetone and ether.
Occurrence
Ammonium chloride occurs in nature in crevices near volcanoes. Also, it is found in smoke when burning dry camel or donkey dung as fuel. Important applications of this compound include the manufacture of dry cells for batteries; as a metal cleaner in soldering; as a flux in tin coating and galvanizing; in fertilizers; in pharmaceutical applications as a diuretic, or diaphoretic expectorant; and as an analytical standard in ammonia analysis. Also, it is used in freezing mixtures; washing powders; lustering cotton; in safety explosives and in dyeing and tanning.
Production Methods
Ammonium chloride is prepared commercially by reacting ammonia with hydrochloric acid.
Definition
sal ammoniac: A white or colourless cubicsolid, NH4Cl; r.d. 1.53; sublimes at340°C. It is very soluble in water andslightly soluble in ethanol but insolublein ether. It may be prepared byfractional crystallization from a solutioncontaining ammonium sulphateand sodium chloride or ammoniumcarbonate and calcium chloride. Puresamples may be made directly by thegas-phase reaction of ammonia andhydrogen chloride. Because of itsease of preparation it can be manufacturedindustrially alongside anyplant that uses or produces ammonia.The compound is used in drycells, metal finishing, and in thepreparation of cotton for dyeing andprinting.
Definition
ChEBI: An inorganic chloride having ammonium as the counterion.
Agricultural Uses
Ammonium chloride, like all other ammonium salts, is used as a fertilizer. It contains 24 to 26% nitrogen and is available as white crystals or granules. A coarse form of this fertilizer is preferred to the powdered form for direct application. Its crystals are used in compound fertilizers.
Ammonium chloride is a good source of nitrogen for cotton, rice, wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar cane and fiber crops. It is easy to handle. In some cases, however, the material tends to become lumpy and difficult to spread.
Ammonium chloride is used either directly for fertilization or in a variety of compound fertilizers, such as ammonium phosphate chloride or ammonium potassium chloride or in combination with urea or ammonium sulphate.
As a fertilizer, ammonium chloride has an advantage in that it contains 26% nitrogen, which is higher than that found in ammonium sulphate (20.5%). In terms of per unit cost of nitrogen, ammonium chloride is relatively cheaper than ammonium sulphate and has some agronomic advantages for rice. Nitrification of ammonium chloride is less rapid than that of urea or ammonium sulphate. Therefore, nitrogen losses are lower and yields, higher.
However, ammonium chloride is a highly acid forming fertilizer and the amount of calcium carbonate required to neutralize the acidity is more than the fertilizer itself, Further, it has a lower nitrogen content and a higher chloride content compared to urea and ammonium nitrate, making it harmful to some plants.
Several methods are used to produce ammonium chloride. The most important is the dual-salt process (modified Solvay process) wherein ammonium chloride and sodium carbonate are produced simultaneously using common salt and anhydrous ammonia as the principal starting materials. When ammonium chloride is mixed with phosphatic and potassic fertilizers, a large amount of soil calcium is lost as its conversion into soluble calcium chloride causes it to leach out easily.
Like ammonium sulphate, ammonium chloride can be applied to wet land crops. In terms of the agronomic suitability, it is generally rated as equal to other straight nitrogenous fertilizers.
Ammonium chloride is, however, not ideal for grapes, chilies, potatoes and tobacco as the added chlorine affects the quality and storability of these crops.
Industrial uses of ammonium chloride are in dry-battery manufacture and as a flux for soldering and brazing.
Safety
Ammonium chloride is used in oral pharmaceutical formulations. The pure form of ammonium chloride is toxic by SC, IV, and IM routes, and moderately toxic by other routes. Potential symptoms of overexposure to fumes are irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory system: cough, dyspnea, and pulmonary sensitization. Ammonium salts are an irritant to the gastric mucosa and may induce nausea and vomiting.
LD50 (mouse, IP): 1.44 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 1.3 g/kg
LD50 (rat, IM): 0.03 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 1.65 g/kg
Veterinary Drugs and Treatments
The veterinary indications for ammonium chloride are as a urinary acidifying agent to help prevent and dissolve certain types of uroliths (e.g., struvite), to enhance renal excretion of some types of toxins (e.g., strontium, strychnine) or drugs (e.g., quinidine), or to enhance the efficacy of certain antimicrobials (e.g., chlortetracycline, methenamine mandelate, nitrofurantoin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G or tetracycline) when treating urinary tract infections. Ammonium chloride has also been used intravenously for the rapid correction of metabolic alkalosis.
Because of changes in feline diets to restrict struvite and as struvite therapeutic diets (e.g., s/d) cause aciduria, ammonium chloride is not commonly recommended for struvite uroliths in cats.
storage
Ammonium chloride is chemically stable. It decomposes completely at 3388℃ to form ammonia and hydrochloric acid. Store in airtight containers in a cool, dry place.
Purification Methods
Crystallise it several times from conductivity water (1.5mL/g) between 90o and 0o. It sublimes. After one crystallisation, ACS grade has: metal(ppm) As (1.2), K (1), Sb (7.2), V (10.2). [Becher in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 812 1963.]
Regulatory Status
GRAS listed. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (oral syrup, tablets). Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in medicines licensed in the UK (eye drops; oral syrup).

Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)

Questions And Answer

description
Ammonium chloride (referred to as "chloramine", also known as halogen sand, chemical formula: NH4Cl) is colorless cubic crystal or white crystalline powder. It tastes salty and slightly bitter and belongs to acid salt. Its relative density is 1.527. It is soluble in water, ethanol and liquid ammonia but insoluble in acetone and ether. The aqueous solution is weakly acidic, and its acidity is enhanced while heating. When heated to 100 ° C, it begins to significantly volatilize, and when heated to 337.8  ° C, it will dissociate into ammonia and hydrogen chloride, which, on cold exposure, will re-combine to produce small particles of ammonium chloride and white smoke that is not easy to sink and very difficult to be dissolved in water. When heated to 350 ° C ,it will sublimate and when 520 ° C, it will boil. Its moisture absorption is small, and in the wet rainy weather can absorb moisture to cake. For the ferrous metals and other metals, it is corrosive, which, in particular, has greater corrosion of copper but no corrosion of pig iron. Ammonium chloride can be obtained from the neutralization reaction of ammonia and hydrogen chloride or ammonia and hydrochloric acid (reaction equation: NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl). When heated, it will decompose into hydrogen chloride and ammonia reaction (equation: NH4Cl → NH3 + HCl) and the reaction is only to the right if the container is open system.

ammonium chloride powder
Chemical properties
Ammonium chloride NH4Cl (also called sal ammoniac) is a colourless crystal or white granular powder that dissolves easily in water.It is odourless and has a salty and bitter taste. It sublimes on heating to form ammonia and hydrogen chloride (gas). It is commonly used in the baked goods industry, as a functional salt and as a dough improver for yeasts.It gives the dough good elasticity,extensibility, and machinability, producing breads with good quality characteristics in terms of volume,colour, aroma, texture,and elasticity.Ammonium chloride is considered safe in small amounts. The Us Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted ammonium hydroxide status as a GRAS, or Generally Recognized as Safe, substance in 1974 and it is also recognised as a food additive in the EU.
Uses
Ammonium chloride is mainly used for dry batteries, storage batteries, ammonium salts, tanning, plating, medicine, photography, electrodes, adhesives, etc. Ammonium chloride is also an available nitrogen chemical fertilizer whose nitrogen content is 24% to 25%. It is a physiological acidic fertilizer and suitable for wheat, rice, corn, rapeseed and other crops. It have the effects of enhancing fiber toughness and tension and improving quality especially for cotton and linen crops. However, due to the nature of ammonium chloride, if the application is not right, it will bring some adverse effects to soil and crops.
Technical conditions: the implementation of the People's Republic of China national standard GB-2946-82.
1. Appearance: white crystal
2. ammonium chloride content (dry basis) ≥ 99.3%
3. moisture content ≤1.0%
4. sodium chloride content (dry basis) ≤0.2%
5. iron content ≤0.001%
6. heavy metal content (in terms of Pb) ≤0.0005%
7. water insoluble content ≤0.02%
8. sulfate content (in terms of SO42-) ≤0.02%
9. pH: 4.2-5.8
Production method
(1) Recrystallization method: the industrial ammonium chloride is added into the dissolver which has been filled with distilled water, and dissolved by heating. The obtained solvents is purified by arsenic removal and heavy metal removal, and then filtered, cooled for crystallization, centrifuged and dried. Finally the chemical ammonium chloride is finished.
(2) Metathesis method: the mother liquor of ammonium chloride is added to reactor and heated to 105 ° C. Add ammonium sulfate and salt under stirring and proceed metathesis reaction at 117 ° C, resulting in forming ammonium chloride solution and sodium sulfate crystallization. The obtained mixture is then filtrated and separated to remove sulfuric acid Sodium. Add arsenic removal and heavy metal removal to the filtrate and filtrate to remove arsenic, heavy metals and other impurities. The filtrate is sent to a cooling crystallizer and is cooled to 32-35 ℃ to precipitate the crystals. The crystals are filtered and washed with ammonium chloride solution, and then are dehydrated by centrifugal separation and dried to obtain finished edible ammonium chloride.  Reaction formula:
(NH4) 2SO4 + 2NaCl→2NH4Cl + Na2SO4
Recrystallization method: the industrial ammonium chloride is added into the dissolver which has been filled with distilled water, and dissolved by heating. The obtained solvents is purified by arsenic removal and heavy metal removal, and then filtered, cooled for crystallization, centrifuged and dried. Finally the edible ammonium chloride is finished.
(3) The mother liquor was filtrated by associated alkali method and cooled for crystallization, and then add salt powder to salt out the product.
It can also be obtained by derived replacement reaction of ammonium sulfate and calcium chloride in aqueous solution.
(4) Gas-liquid phase synthesis: hydrogen chloride gas is added from the bottom of the turbulence absorption tower and then contact with the circulating mother liquor flowing from overhead spray to generate chloride mother liquor containing saturated ammonium chloride. Chloride mother liquor then flows into the reactor and react with   ammonia gas to form a saturated ammonium chloride solution. The obtained solvents are sent to the cooling crystallizer and cooled to 30~45 ° C to precipitate supersaturated ammonium chloride crystals. The ammonium chloride solution in the upper part of the crystallizer is sent to the air cooler for cooling and circulating to the crystallizer; the crystal slurry in the lower part of the crystallizer is thickened by thickening thickener and centrifuged for separation to obtain ammonium chloride. Reaction formula:
HCl + NH3 → NH4Cl
The mother liquor separated by centrifugation is sent to the turbulent absorption tower for recycling.
Metathesis method: the mother liquor of ammonium chloride is added to reactor and heated to 105 ° C. Add ammonium sulfate and salt under stirring and proceed metathesis reaction at 117 ° C, resulting in forming ammonium chloride solution and sodium sulfate crystals. The obtained mixture is then filtrated to remove sulfuric acid Sodium and the filtrate is sent to cooling crystallizer and cooled to 32 to 35 ℃ for crystallization. Then the crystals of ammonium chloride is obtained by filtration and  respectively washed by 4 different concentrations (15~17°Bé,11~12°Bé,10°Bé,9.5~10°Bé) of ammonium chloride solution, controlling Fe < 0.008%, SO42-< 0.001%. After elution to qualified, use ammonium chloride solution to remake the crystals into slurry, put into the centrifuge for separation and dehydration. And then dry by hot air and obtain the industrial ammonium chloride products. Reaction formula:
2NaCl + (NH4) 2SO4 → 2NH4Cl + Na2SO4
The mother liquor is sent to the metathesis reactor for recycling. The separated sodium sulfate is filtered to produce sodium sulfate. The crude ammonium chloride is added into the dissolving device, dissolved in the steam and filtered. The filtrate is cooled for crystallization, centrifugalized and dried to obtain the finished products of industrial ammonium chloride. The mother liquor from the centrifugal separation is returned to the dissolver for use.

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