Basic information Overview Clinical efficacy Pharmacokinetic and Bioavailability Drugs interaction Biological effects References Safety Related Supplier
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Matrine

Basic information Overview Clinical efficacy Pharmacokinetic and Bioavailability Drugs interaction Biological effects References Safety Related Supplier
Matrine Basic information
  • Product Name:Matrine
  • CAS:519-02-8
  • MF:C15H24N2O
  • MW:248.36
  • EINECS:610-750-6
  • Mol File:519-02-8.mol
Matrine Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:77 C
  • Boiling point:86-88C/2,5Torr
  • alpha D20 +38° (alc)
  • Density 1,191g/cm
  • refractive index 1,536
  • storage temp. Sealed in dry,2-8°C
  • pka9.47±0.20(Predicted)
  • Merck 14,5759
  • CAS DataBase Reference519-02-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceMatrine(519-02-8)
Safety Information
Matrine Usage And Synthesis
  • OverviewMatrine (MT) is a kind of alkaloid components found in the roots of Sophora species, having various pharmacological activities and are demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-virus, antifibrotic, and cardiovascular protective effects. It is recently proved to have anti-cancer potentials, such as inhibiting cancer cell proliferation, inducing cell cycle arrest, accelerating apoptosis, restraining angiogenesis, inducing cell differentiation, inhibiting cancer metastasis and invasion, reversing multidrug resistance, and preventing or reducing chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-induced toxicity when combined with other chemotherapeutic drugs.
  • Clinical efficacySophora root, which is a traditional herb medicine found in China, Japan and some European countries, is the dried root of Sophora flavescens Aiton (Leguminosae) and includes matrine (MT), a major tetracycloquinolizindine alkaloids, as its primary components (chemical structure are shown in Fig. 1)[1–3]. It was reported that MT exhibit many biological activities and possess a wide range of pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammation, anti-arrhythmia, anti-virus, antifibrotic, anti-allergy, analgesic, and immunosuppression[4], leading to wide clinical use in the treatment of viral hepatitis, liver fibrosis, cardiac arrhythmia, skin diseases, and autoimmune disease in China. Recently, MT has been extensively studied, for their cancer chemopreventive potential against various cancers, for instance gastric cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, melanoma, leukemia, cervix cancer, and osteosarcoma[5-7]. However, the precise mechanism underlying the anticancer activity of MT is largely unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we focus on the current studies regarding various aspects of MT as they relate to their efficacy against cancer and associated molecular mechanisms.

    Figure 1 the chemical structure of matrine
  • Pharmacokinetic and BioavailabilityWithin the past decade, several research groups have evaluated the pharmacokinetics of MT an extracts in vivo. Zhang et al. investigated the pharmacokinetics of MT in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method. After oral administration of MT soft gelatin capsules 100, 200 and 400 mg, as the major pharmacokinetic parameters of MT, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) increased in proportion to dose increase, but the time of occurrence (Tmax) had no apparent change as the dose ascended. So they draw a conclusion that MT had linear pharmacokinetic trends in healthy Chinese volunteers[8]. This result could be used as a suitable reference in clinical practice. In order to enhance the bioavailability of MT, Ruan et al. prepared the matrine phospholipid complex (MPC) by solvent evaporation method. And after oral administration, the absolute bioavailability of MT was drastically increased from 25 to 84.6 % by the formation of MPC, with an outstanding relative bioavailability of 338 %. This result suggests MPC possesses great potential for clinical application. These two studies indicate a bright way to improve the clinical efficacy of MT. Fan et al. determined a specific and sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method of oxymatrine (OMT) and its active metabolite MT after administration of OMT oral solution in human plasma. The test showed only part of OMT is absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract while most of it was absorbed after arrived in the intestines and quickly transformed into MT, which in turn plays a very good role during the treatment of liver injuries[9]. This result showed OMT oral solution had good absorption, quick effect and long acting time. Wu et al. conducted a study of OMT and its metabolite MT in human plasma after i.v. Infusion administration of 600 mg of OMT in 100 ml of 5 % glucose. They found the plasma concentration time profiles of OMT and MT obtained were best fitted with two-compartment and one-compartment models, respectively, and the Cmax, Tmax, AUC0–t were (20,519±7,581) and (247±45) ng/ml, (0.5±0.1) and (5.6±1.7) h, (20,360±5,205) and (3,817±610) ng h/ml, respectively.
  • Drugs interactionRecently, drug–drug interactions, which can manifest as impaired drug efficacy and/or enhanced toxicity in combination use of natural products and prescribed drugs, have been documented in both pre-clinical and clinical investigations [10]. MT displays the synergistic effect with the anti-cancer agents trichostatin A (a histone deacetylase inhibitor), celecoxib (a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor) and rosiglitazone against the tumor proliferation and VEGF secretion. Hu et al. reported that the inhibitory effect of combined MT and 5-FU is superior to MT or 5-FU alone on the growth of transplanted human gastric cancer in nude mice. They also found combining MT and 5-FU can increase the inhibitory effect on proliferative hemopoietic bone marrow cells and does not affect the resting bone marrow stem cells[11]. Yang et al. showed that, in patients with non-small cell lung cancer, the effect of intra-operative pleural perfusion with cisplatin plus MT is superior to cisplatin alone. They concluded that pleural perfusion chemotherapy with cisplatin plus MT might be considered as an early-phase intervention against probable tumor metastasis[12]. All these studies indicated that MT could enhance the efficacy of many anticancer drugs by drug–drug interactions.
  • Biological effectsAnti-cancer
    Carcinogenesis is a multistep process that can be activated by altered expression of onco-proteins and transcriptional factors involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell differentiation, cell invasion, and metastasis[13]. Deregulated cell cycle progression and apoptosis together with increased proliferation capacity, angiogenic potential, invasion, and metastasis have been described as symbol of cancer. Accordingly, the agents that could target one or more of these processes should be ideal cancer chemopreventive agents. MT exerts their anti-cancer activities by various channels, mainly manifested in inhibiting cancer cell proliferation, inducing cell cycle arrest and differentiation, accelerating apoptosis, restraining agiogenesis, inhibiting metastasis and invasion, reversing multidrug resistance and preventing or reducing chemotherapyand radiotherapy-induced toxicity[14].
    MT and OMT treatments have been shown to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells in various cancers, including gastric cancer (MKN45 and SGC-7901), breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), hepatoma (SMMC-7721), colon cancer (SW1116), melanoma (M21), glioma (C6), osteosarcoma (UMR-108), pancreatic cancer (PANC-1), and leukemia (U937) in a dose-dependent manner[15-17].

    Modulation of cell cycle progression
    MT could inhibit proliferation of cells by inhibiting cell cycle progression at different phases of the cell cycle, such as an increase of G0/G1 phase and a decrease of S phase in human hepatoma cells. Studies from Zhao et al. demonstrated that MT induces G1 phase arrest in human retinoblastoma Y79, WERI-RB1, and SO-RB50 cells, and the molecular mechanisms are associated with up-regulation of CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 and down-regulation of cyclin D1 protein[18]. MT induces significant G0/G1 accumulation and G2/M depletion by increasing p21 mRNA and decreasing cyclin D1 mRNA. Furthermore, MT can result in cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase in gallbladder carcinoma GBC-SD cells and induce cell apoptosis by down-regulation of cyclin E expression. It is reported that the E2F family of transcription factors control the G1/S transition in eukaryotic cells. MT treatment could obviously up-regulate the expression of E2F1, as well as down-regulate Rb, an inhibitor of E2F-1 activity, and finally lead to cell apoptosis in K562 cells [19-21].

    Induction of cell apoptosis
    Apoptosis is a ubiquitous and highly regulated mechanism by which cells undergo programmed cell death[22]. Cancer cell is resistant to apoptosis. Studies have reported that MT exerts anti-cancer effects by inducing apoptosis in different type of cancers. Liang et al. showed that MT induces apoptotic cell death in human osteosarcoma cells by activating of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 and increasing the expression of factor associated suicide/factor-associated suicide ligand (Fas/FasL). This major caspase-dependent pathway plays an important role in regulation of cell apoptosis. In retinoblastoma cells human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells[23], MT induces apoptosis by decreasing the expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and increasing expression of proapoptotic protein Bax. MT causes apoptosis in V600EBRAF harboring M21 cells by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway that is associated with activation of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)[24]. It has been shown that MT induces apoptosis in human acute myeloid leukemia cells by collapsing the mitochondrial membrane potential, inducing the cytochrome C release from mitochondria, reducing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, increasing activity of caspase-3, and decreasing the levels of phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated ERK1/2[25].

    Anti-angiogenic activity
    Angiogenesis is a physiological process of microvascular generation and growth, and plays an important role in the growth and spread of cancer[26]. MT exerts its anti-angiogenic activity in human NSCLC A549 cells by reducing the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key regulator of normal and abnormal angiogenesis[27]. Chen et al. demonstrated that OMT inhibits the growth and survival of human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells by inhibiting capillary tube formation. The molecular events associated with these effects include a decrease of
    NF-κB mRNA and NF-κB p65 protein, which has been reported associated with angiogenesis[28], and a down-regulation of VEGF levels. Qu et al. found, after administration of MT, that the solid tumors in H22 tumor-bearing mice were inhibited in a dose-response relationship and the quality of life were improved; the anti-cancer effect may be related to the down-regulation of VEGF[29].

    Induction of autophagy
    Autophagy, an important cell death process besides apoptosis, regulates cell death in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The genetic or pharmacological inhibition of autophagy can sensitize cancer cells to various cancer therapies[30]. Therefore, the inhibition of autophagy is therapeutically beneficial for anticancer therapies. After treatment with MT, the HepG2 hepatoma cells exhibited remarkable morphological changes, including an appearance of abundant autophagic vacuoles (AVs) of varied sizes, and an increased expression of Beclin 1, which is the first identified mammalian gene to induce autophagy[31]. In addition, 3MA, an inhibitor that blocks autophagic sequestration, prevented the accumulation of Avs. After treatment with MT, the massive AVs in SGC7901 gastric cancer cells and C6 glioma cells were observed under transmission electron microscopy, and the expression of BNIP1, BNIP2, NNIP3 andDRPK1 were all increased in C6 glioma cells. Recently, Wang et al. observed that MT promotes the accumulation of AVs accompanied by attenuation of proteinase activity in lysosomes. Meanwhile, MT alters the pH environment of lysosomes, thereby resulting in an inhibition of trafficking and proteolytic activation of lysosomal enzymes[32].

    Induction of cell differentiation
    It is reported that MT has an ability to induce cell differentiation in human erythro-leukemia K562 cell line accompanied by loss of telomerase activity[33]. MT treatment up-regulates the expression of p27kip1, a potential downstream molecule in cell differentiation and apoptosis pathways, and induces K562 cells to exhibit apoptotic characteristics, demonstrating that MT-induced erythroid differentiation in K562 cells is associated with cell apoptosis[34].
  • References
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    3. Sun J, et al J Sep Sci. 2009;32:2043–50.
    4. Kan QC, et al Immunol Res. 2013;56: 189–96.
    5. Zhang S, et al PloS One. 2012;7: e46853.
    6. Zhang L, et al Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;563:69–76.
    7. Yan F, et al Tumour Biol. 2013;34:2135–40.
    8. Zhang XL, et al J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2009;877:3253–6.
    9. Fan R, et al Fitoterapia. 2013;89:271–7.
    10. Kennedy DA, et al Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2010;9(1):79–124.
    11. Hu MJ, et al Chin J Dig Dis. 2005;6(2):68–71.
    12. Yang CL, et al Med Oncol. 2012;29(2):574–81.
    13. Ramasamy K, et al Cancer Lett. 2008;269:352–62.
    14. Sun Q, et al Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2012;9:178–88.
    15. Zhang S,Qi J, et al Mol Biol Rep. 2009;36:791–9.
    16. Ling Q, et al J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2011;30:66.
    17. Liu XS, et al Planta Med. 2006;72:501–6.
    18. Zhao B, et al Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2012;250:897–905.
    19. Zhang Z, et al Phytother Res. 2012;26:932–7.
    20. Harbour JW, et al Genes Dev. 2000;14:2393–409.
    21. Jiang H, et al Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;559:98-108
    22. Degterev A, et al Oncogene. 2003;22:8543–67.
    23. Yu P, et al Cytotechnology. 2009;59:219–29.
    24. Jin H, et al Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:16040–57.
    25. Zhang S, et al PloS One. 2012;7: e46853.
    26. Maheshwari RK et al Life Sci. 2006;78: 2081–7.
    27. Lee TH, et al PLoS Med. 2007;4:e186.
    28. North S, et al Cancer Lett. 2005;218:1–14.
    29. Qu F, et al Anti-tumor Pharmacy (China). 2011;1:374–8.
    30. Yang ZJ, et al Mol Cancer Ther. 2011;10:1533–41.
    31. Liang XH, et al Nature. 1999;402:672–6.
    32. Wang Z, et al Carcinogenesis. 2013;34:128–38.
    33. Zhang LP, et al Leuk Res. 2001;25:793–800.
    34. Fukuchi Y, et al Oncol Rep. 2006;16:1099–103.
  • DescriptionMatrine is extracted by organic solvents from the dry roots, plants, and fruits of kushen 苦参 (Sophora flavescens Ait) and also existed in S. alopecuroides L. and S. subprostrata Chun et T.?Chen.
    Chinese medicine Radix sophorae flavescentis have dampness eliminating insecticide and diuretic effects. Sophora flavescens is used for heat dysentery, hemafecia, jaundice and anuria, red leukorrhea, vulva pruritus, eczema, wet sores, skin itching, scabies, ringworm, and trichomonas vaginitis. Sophora flavescens is recorded in the ancient Materia Medica. “Southern Yunnan Materia Medica” also recorded the effects of Saphora flavescens .
    Sophora flavescens is a species of Sophora japonica and distributed in temperate and subtropical regions. Sophora flavescens is widely distributed in China, mainly in the north of Hebei, the west of Henan, and southwest of Shandong, Anhui, Hubei, and Guizhou. Matrine is extracted and isolated from the Chinese medicine Sophora flavescens
  • Chemical PropertiesWhite solid
  • Physical propertiesAppearance: white, needle-like crystal or crystalline powder that becomes yellow and solid after long-time exposure in air. Solubility: soluble in water, benzene, chloroform, and methanol and slightly soluble in petroleum ether. Melting point: 76?°C (α-matrine), 87?°C (β-matrine), 223?°C (γ-matrine), and 84?°C (δ-matrine). Specific optical rotation: +31 to +36°.
  • HistoryAs early as the 1930s, the Soviet Union began to study Sophora flavescens, and the domestic research began in 1972. Sophora flavescens in the chemical composition are divided into two major categories of alkaloids and flavonoids. Domestic and foreign researches are focused on the alkaloids. So far, there are 23 species of alkaloids isolated and identified in roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of Sophora flavescens. The main components of Sophora flavescens have obvious anti-cancer effects, and oxymatrine has anti-cancer and antiaging effects. Flavonoids are predominantly A-ring isoprenyl-branched. Isopentenyl flavonoids are generally thought to act as plant defensins and play an important physiological role in plant defense. These components are only distributed in plants of legumes, Moraceae, and Asteraceae. Since the 1970s, owing to the multiple pharmacological activities of isopentenyl flavonoids, the studies on these ingredients have attracted more and more attention. So far, the natural separation of these compounds has more than a thousand species. Early chemical work focused on the composition of alkaloids in Sophora flavescens. In recent years, more and more researches were focused on isopentenyl flavonoids, which achieved a lot of results .
  • Usesantifungal, nematocide
  • IndicationsIn clinical settings, matrine injection was used for chronic active hepatitis, and suppository was used for trichomoniasis or Candida vaginitis and chronic cervicitis and can also be used for senile vaginitis and pelvic inflammatory disease.
  • PharmacologyMatrine has antiarrhythmic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrosis, and anti-tumor effects. Matrine has significant effects of negative frequency and positive inotropic action, which can enhance myocardial contractility, slow down the heart rate, and extend the PR and QTC interval. Matrine can promote the expression of bcl-2 gene and can improve the ratio of bcl-2/Bax to inhibit apoptosis of myocardial cell caused by myocardial ischemia reperfusion and then reduce myocardial deficiency caused by coronary atherosclerotic heart disease and myocardial infarction to achieve the role of antiarrhythmic. In addition, matrine can also play an anti-pulmonary fibrosis effect by inhibiting the proliferation of lung fibroblasts and the expression of pulmonary interstitial fibroblasts (FN). Studies have found that matrine has anti-allergy and anti-inflammatory effects.Matrine has an inhibitory effect on tumor cells by inhibiting growth and proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Studies have shown that 0.8?g/L and 1.0?g/L matrine could significantly inhibit the growth, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells . In addition, 0.0625–0.5?mg/ ml matrine significantly inhibited proliferation of HT29 cells after 48?h incubation. 1?mg/ml matrine significantly induce apoptosis of HT29 cells . Oxymatrine is also an anti-cancer ingredient of Sophora flavescens. In recent years, oxymatrine is widely used in the clinic for treatment of leukopenia and chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis C induced by tumor radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Oxymatrine can improve liver biochemical indicators by protecting liver cells, reducing cell necrosis, and preventing liver fibrosis. In addition, oxymatrine can treat all kinds of eczema, especially for acute and subacute eczema, and contact dermatitis .
  • Clinical UseMatrine has multiple pharmacological effects and can treat a variety of diseases in clinical setting. At present, the researches on matrine are mainly focused on antiliver injury and liver fibrosis and anti-tumor and anti-cardiovascular diseases. It was worthy of attention that matrine has other pharmacological activities, such as leukocyte-elevating effects and anti-virus effects, and these effects were necessary for further development and utilization. The pharmacological effects of matrine stayed in the experimental phase, and they need further development and research to promote the development of clinical practice. Improvements in the modern formulation of matrine can improve their clinical application.
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