Decane Chemical Properties
- Melting point:-30 °C
- Boiling point:174 °C(lit.)
- Density 0.735
- vapor density 4.9 (vs air)
- vapor pressure 1 mm Hg ( 16.5 °C)
- refractive index n
- Flash point:115 °F
- storage temp. Flammables area
- solubility 0.00005g/l
- form Liquid
- Specific Gravity0.731 (20/4℃)
- color Colorless
- Relative polarity-0.3
- Odor Threshold0.87ppm
- explosive limit0.7-5.4%(V)
- Water Solubility INSOLUBLE
- BRN 1696981
- Henry's Law Constant5.59 at 25 °C (calculated from water solubility and vapor pressure, Tolls, 2002)
- Stability:Stable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents. Flammable.
- CAS DataBase Reference124-18-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry ReferenceDecane(124-18-5)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemDecane (124-18-5)
- Hazard Codes Xn,N,F
- Risk Statements 10-65-66-67-62-51/53-48/20-38-11
- Safety Statements 62-23-16-61-36/37-33-29-9
- RIDADR UN 2247 3/PG 3
- WGK Germany 3
- RTECS HD6550000
- Autoignition Temperature410 °F
- TSCA Yes
- HazardClass 3
- PackingGroup III
- HS Code 29011090
- Hazardous Substances Data124-18-5(Hazardous Substances Data)
- ToxicityLD50 orally in Rabbit: > 5000 mg/kg LD50 dermal Rat > 2000 mg/kg
Decane Usage And Synthesis
- Chemical Propertiescolourless liquid
- Chemical PropertiesDecane, C10H22, is a flammable liquid with specific gravity 0.73. Decane is a constituent in the paraffin fraction of crude oil and natural gas. It is released to the environment via the manufacture, use, and disposal of many products associated with the petroleum, gasoline, and plastics industries.
- Physical propertiesClear, colorless liquid. Reported odor threshold concentrations were 11.3 mg/m3 by Laffort and Dravnieks (1973) and 620 ppbv by Nagata and Takeuchi (1990).
- UsesInternal standard in the GC analysis of oxalic, malonic, and succinic acids in biological materials.
- UsesDecane is obtained mainly from the refining of petroleum. It is a component of engine fuel and is used in organic synthesis, as a solvent, as a standardized hydrocarbon, and in jet fuel research.
- General DescriptionA colorless liquid. Flash point 115°F. Less dense than water and insoluble in water. Vapors heavier than air. In high concentrations its vapors may be narcotic. Used as a solvent and to make other chemicals.
- Air & Water ReactionsFlammable. Insoluble in water.
- Reactivity ProfileDECANE is incompatible with oxidizing agents.
- Health HazardContact with eyes may produce mild irritation. Contact with skin may cause defatting, redness, scaling, and hair loss. Ingestion may cause diarrhea, slight central nervous system depression, difficulty in breathing and fatigue. Inhalation of high concentrations may cause rapid breathing, fatigue, headache, dizziness, and other CNS effects.
- Fire HazardSpecial Hazards of Combustion Products: May produce toxic fumes, including carbon monoxide.
- Safety ProfileQuestionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. A simple asphyxiant. Narcotic in high concentrations, Flammable liquid when exposed to heat or flame. Can react with oxidizing materials. Moderately explosive in its vapor form. To fight fire, use foam, CO2, dry chemical. Emitted from modern buildtng materials (CENEAR 69,22,91). See also ARGON for discussion of asphyxiants.
- CarcinogenicityMice treated with decane developed tumors on the backs, after exposure to ultraviolet radiation at wavelengths longer than 350 nm, generally considered noncarcinogenic. A series of 21 tobacco smoke components and related compounds were applied to mouse skin (50 female ICR/Ha Swiss mice/group) three times weekly with 5 mug/application of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The test compounds were of five classes: aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and longchain acids and alcohols. Decane was among the compounds that enhanced remarkably the carcinogenicity of B[a]P. and also acted as tumor promoter in two-stage carcinogenesis.
- SourceMajor constituent in paraffin (quoted, Verschueren, 1983).
Identified as one of 140 volatile constituents in used soybean oils collected from a processing plant that fried various beef, chicken, and veal products (Takeoka et al., 1996).
California Phase II reformulated gasoline contained decane at a concentration of 1,120 mg/kg. Gas-phase tailpipe emission rates from gasoline-powered automobiles with and without catalytic converters were 300 and 42,600 μg/km, respectively (Schauer et al., 2002).
- Environmental FateBiological. Decane may biodegrade in two ways. The first is the formation of decyl
hydroperoxide, which decomposes to 1-decanol, followed by oxidation to decanoic acid. The other
pathway involves dehydrogenation to 1-decene, which may react with water giving 1-decanol
(Dugan, 1972). Microorganisms can oxidize alkanes under aerobic conditions (Singer and
Finnerty, 1984). The most common degradative pathway involves the oxidation of the terminal
methyl group forming the corresponding alcohol (1-decanol). The alcohol may undergo a series of
dehydrogenation steps, forming decanal, followed by oxidation forming decanoic acid. The fatty
acid may then be metabolized by β-oxidation to form the mineralization products, carbon dioxide
and water (Singer and Finnerty, 1984). Hou (1982) reported 1-decanol and 1,10-decanediol as
degradation products by the microorganism Corynebacterium.
Photolytic. A photooxidation reaction rate constant of 1.16 x 10-11 cm3/molecule?sec was reported for the reaction of decane with OH in the atmosphere (Atkinson, 1990).
Chemical/Physical. Complete combustion in air yields carbon dioxide and water vapor. Decane will not hydrolyze because it has no hydrolyzable functional group.
- Purification MethodsIt can be purified by shaking with conc H2SO4, washing with water, aqueous NaHCO3, and more water, then drying with MgSO4, refluxing with Na and distilling. Also purify through a column of silica gel or alumina. It has been purified by azeotropic distillation with 2-butoxyethanol, the alcohol being washed out of the distillate, using water, the decane is next dried and redistilled. It can be stored with NaH. Further purification can be achieved by preparative gas chromatography on a column packed with 30% SE-30 (General Electric methyl-silicone rubber) on 42/60 Chromosorb P at 150o and 40psig, using helium [Chu J Chem Phys 41 226 1964]. It is soluble in EtOH and Et2O. [Beilstein 1 IV 484.]
Decane Preparation Products And Raw materials
- 2-BROMODODECANE 1-Bromooctadecane Undecanoyl chloride 1,12-Dibromododecane 1-BROMOPENTADECANE PERFLUOROEICOSANE CHLORODIMETHYLOCTADECYLSILANE 1-Bromotridecane 2-BROMOTRIDECANE 1,11-DIBROMOUNDECANE DODECYLTRICHLOROSILANE N-OCTADECYLTRICHLOROSILANE 1-Bromotetradecane 1-Bromododecane 2-BROMODECANE 1,10-Dibromodecane 1-Bromodecane Sodium decane-1-sulfonate
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