ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > Inorganic chemistry > Inorganic salts > Metal halide and Halogen salt > Metal fluoride and salt > ANTIMONY PENTAFLUORIDE
ANTIMONY PENTAFLUORIDE Chemical Properties
- Melting point:7 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:149.4 °C
- Density 2.993 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- vapor density 2.2 (vs air)
- vapor pressure 10 mm Hg ( 25 °C)
- Flash point:149.5°C
- storage temp. Store below +30°C.
- solubility liquid sulfur dioxide: slightly soluble(lit.)
- form Shiny Flakes or Powder
- color White to off-white
- Water Solubility reacts vigorously with H2O, becoming hydrolyzed [HAW93] [KIR78]
- Sensitive Moisture Sensitive
- Merck 13,702
- CAS DataBase Reference7783-70-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemAntimony pentafluoride (7783-70-2)
- Hazard Codes T,O,C,N,Xn
- Risk Statements 23/24/25-34-51/53-20/22
- Safety Statements 61-45-36/37/39-28-27-26-22
- RIDADR UN 2923 8/PG 2
- WGK Germany 3
- RTECS CC5800000
- F 10
- Hazard Note Corrosive/Oxidising agent
- HazardClass 8
- PackingGroup II
- HS Code 28261990
- ToxicityLC50 ihl-mus: 270 mg/m3 GISAAA 35(7),25,70
ANTIMONY PENTAFLUORIDE Usage And Synthesis
- Chemical Propertiescolourless oily liquid
- Chemical PropertiesAntimony pentafluoride is a noncombustible, oily, colorless liquid with a pungent odor.
- Physical propertiesColorless oily liquid; highly viscous; hygroscopic; freezes at 8.3°C; boils at 149.5°C; density 2.99 g/cm3 at 23°C; soluble in excess water (with violent reaction) and glacial acetic acid; also soluble in potassium fluoride.
- UsesHF/SbF5 is an excellent medium for the preparation of alkylidene oxonium salts.1
- UsesIn the fluorination of organic Compounds, see the monograph Preparation, Properties and Technology of Fluorine and Organic Fluoro Compounds, C. Slesser, S. R. Schram, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1951) 868 pp.
- PreparationAntimony pentafluoride is prepared by the reaction of antimony pentachloride with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride:
SbCl5 +5 HF → SbF5 +5 HCl
It may also be prepared from antimony trifluoride and fluorine, or by treating antimony pentaoxide with aqueous hydrofluoric acid and evaporing water.
- General DescriptionA colorless, oily liquid. Fumes irritate the eyes and mucous membranes. Toxic. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Extremely dangerous to tissue; its burns may be followed by gangrene. Only shipped in cylinders. Under prolonged exposure to heat cylinders may violently rupture and rocket. Used to make other chemicals as well as a catalyst in the manufacture of other chemicals.
- Reactivity ProfileANTIMONY PENTAFLUORIDE is strongly acidic. Reacts vigorously with bases. When heated to decomposition, ANTIMONY PENTAFLUORIDE emits highly toxic fumes of fluorides and metallic antimony. Reacts with ammonia to form a diammoniate.
- HazardCorrosive to skin and tissue.
- Health HazardThe compound is irritating to eyes, skin, and lungs. Contact with eyes or skin causes severe burns. The compound is extremely toxic with a probable oral lethal dose of 5-50 mg/kg or between 7 drops and one teaspoonful for a 150 pound person (antimony salts).
- Fire HazardReacts violently with water, to form poisonous hydrogen fluoride fumes. If confined and wet can cause explosion. May cause fire in contact with combustible material. Hazardous polymerization may not occur.
- Safety ProfileA poison by inhalation. A very reactive, corrosive liquid to skin, eyes, mucous membranes. See also FLUORIDES and ANTIMONY COMPOUNDS. Violent reaction with phosphates. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of F and Sb.
- Potential ExposureIt is used as a catalyst in chemical reactions or as a source of fluorine (fluorinating reagent) in fluorination reactions.
- ShippingUN1732 Antimony pentafluoride, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material, 6.1-Poisonous materials.
- Purification MethodsPurify it by vacuum distillation, preferably in a quartz apparatus, and store it in quartz or aluminum bottles. It is a hygroscopic viscous liquid which reacts violently with H2O and is hydrolysed by alkalis. It is POISONOUS and attacks the skin. [Woolf & Greenwood J Chem Soc 2200 1950, Kwasnik in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 200 1965.]
- IncompatibilitiesWater and other forms of moisture releases hydrofluoric acid, combustible organic and siliceous materials, phosphorus, and phosphate materials. Attacks glass, ceramic, lead, and metals, including copper in the presence of moisture. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. Antimony pentafluoride, if confined and wet may cause explosion. Antimony pentafluoride appears to have oxidizing properties; may cause fire in contact with combustible or organic materials. May react with metals, including lead, releasing flammable hydrogen gas.
- Waste DisposalConsult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal.
- TRIPHENYLCARBENIUM HEXAFLUOROANTIMONATE ANTIMONY PENTAFLUORIDE ANTIMONY(V) FLUORIDE COMPOUND WITH GRAPHITE TRIPHENYLSULFONIUM HEXAFLUOROANTIMONATE Silver hexafluoroantimonate POTASSIUM HEXAFLUOROANTIMONATE BENZYLTRIMETHYLAMMONIUM HEXAFLUOROANTIMONATE Sodium hexafluoroantimonate DEUTEROFLUOROANTIMONIC ACID HEXAFLUOROANTIMONIC ACID NITRONIUM HEXAFLUOROANTIMONATE PHENYLOXOCARBENIUM(BENZOYL)HEXAFLUOROANTIMONATE CAESIUM HEXAFLUOROANTIMONATE NITROSONIUM HEXAFLUOROANTIMONATE LITHIUM HEXAFLUOROANTIMONATE TETRAPHENYLPHOSPHONIUM HEXAFLUOROANTIMONATE MAGIC ACID DIOXYGENYL HEXAFLUOROANTIMONATE
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