ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > Organic Chemistry > Hydrocarbons and derivatives > Hydrocarbon halides > Perfluorodecalin
Perfluorodecalin Chemical Properties
- Melting point:−10 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:142 °C(lit.)
- Density 1.941 g/mL at 20 °C(lit.)
- vapor density 17.5 (vs air)
- refractive index n
- Flash point:>230 °F
- storage temp. Store below +30°C.
- form Liquid
- color Clear colorless
- Specific Gravity1.908
- Water Solubility Insoluble
- Merck 14,4183
- BRN 2067113
- CAS DataBase Reference306-94-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry ReferencePerflunafene(306-94-5)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemPerfluorodecalin (306-94-5)
Perfluorodecalin Usage And Synthesis
- DescriptionColor additives may be added to food, drugs, cosmetics (i.e., FD & C) and certain medical devices for the purpose of imparting color. The three categories of color additives are: (1) "Straight colors" (color additives that have not been mixed or chemically reacted with any other substance); (2) lakes (color additives formed by chemically reacting a straight color with water-insoluble substances); and (3) mixtures (color additives formed by mixing a color additive with one or more other color additives or noncolored substances, without chemical reaction).
Section 7 of the Food and Drugs Act of 1906 (Pub. L. 59-384) prohibited the use of poisonous or deleterious colors in confectionery and the coloring or staining of food to conceal damage or inferiority. In 1907, the agency, then part of the Department of Agriculture, issued Food Inspection Decision 76 (Ref. 10), which contains a list of seven straight colors approved for use in food. Between 1907 and 1939, the agency expanded the list of straight colors approved for use in food from 7 to 15. These colors were known as "coal tar colors" because they were synthesized mainly from substances obtained from coal tar. However, prior to 1939, the agency’s list of acceptable colors did not include lakes of coal tar colors because such lakes were not used in food. Also, prior to 1938, the government program for batch analysis and certification of colors was voluntary.
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq. (the act)) (Pub. L. 75-717) required FDA to list coaltar colors "harmless and suitable" for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics, and to certify all batches of listed colors, including lakes. The agency issued regulations under the act listing lakes for food use, as well as for drug and cosmetic use, and establishing conditions for certification of batches of lakes (4 FR 1922, May 9, 1939; 4 FR 3931, September 16, 1939; and 5 FR 1138, March 23, 1940). The agency issued the first certificate for a lake under the act on May 11, 1939 (Ref. 11). .
The initial listing of lakes for food use under the act restricted their use to coloring shell eggs (egg dyeing) (5 FR 1138). In 1959, at the request of industry, the agency expanded the uses of lakes prepared from FD & C straight colors to encompass general use in foods (24 FR 3818, May 13, 1959; and 24 FR 5302, June 30, 1959).
The 1960 amendments amended the act by defining the term "color additive" for the first time and restricting the use of color additives in or on food, drugs, cosmetics, or the human body to those listed in IDA regulations. (The Medical Device Amendments of 1976 (Pub. L. 94-295) extended these restrictions to the use of color additives in certain medical devices.) As amended, the act provides that a food, drug or device, or cosmetic, other than a coal tar hair dye, is adulterated if it is, bears, or contains an unsafe color additive. Section 721 (formerly section 706) of the amended act(21 U.S.C. 379e) provides for the listing of safe and suitable color additives for use in foods, drugs, cosmetics, and medical devices; it prohibits the listing of a color additive for a proposed use unless data establish that such use will be safe. Section 721 of the act also continues the requirement for certification of batches of color additives, with or without diluents, to determine whether each batch conforms to the purity and identity specifications in the applicable listing regulation. However, the amendments allow FDA to exempt color additives from batch certification if certification is unnecessary to protect the public health. Section 203 of the 1960 amendments also provided for the provisional listing of color additives that were commercially established when the 1960 amendments were enacted, pending completion of scientific investigations necessary to determine their safety under the new standard established by the 1960 amendments. The purpose of section 203 was to allow the After the enactment of the act in 1938, FDA established the designation "FD & C" to identify color additives listed for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics; the designation "D&C" to identify color additives listed for general use in drugs and cosmetics, but not foods; and the designation "Ext. D&C" to identify color additives listed for use only in externally applied drugs and cosmetics (4 FR 1922 at 1923). These designations are still part of the names of certified color additives. However, the uses of some straight colors (and consequently also of their lakes) were restricted when they were permanently listed, based on the safety reviews conducted by the agency under the 1960 amendments. Consequently, the designations "FD & C" or "D&C" in the name of a certified color additive can no longer be relied upon to accurately describe the approved uses of the color additive.
- Chemical Propertiesclear colourless liquid
- DefinitionChEBI: A fluorocarbon that is decalin in which every hydrogen is replaced by fluorine. Capable of dissolving large quantities of oxygen, it has been used as the basis of an artificial blood substitute.
- Safety ProfilePoison by intravenous route. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic vapors of Fí.
- 1-FLUOROHEPTANE TERT-BUTYL FLUORIDE 1,4-DIFLUOROBUTANE 1H,4H-OCTAFLUOROBUTANE 1-Fluorooctane 1-FLUOROHEXANE 2-FLUORO-2-METHYLBUTANE 1,1-DIFLUOROCYCLOHEXANE TRANS-PERFLUORODECALIN FLUOROCYCLOHEXANE Perfluorodecalin GALDEN (TM) HT70 Pentadecafluorooctanoic acid Octafluoronaphthalene Hexafluoropropylene oxide PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID AMMONIUM SALT Potassium nonafluoro-1-butanesulfonate Decahydronaphthalene
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