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Levosimendan Basic information
Levosimendan Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:216-219°C (dec.)
  • alpha D25 -566° (tetrahydrofurane/methanol)
  • Density 1.33±0.1 g/cm3(Predicted)
  • storage temp. room temp
  • solubility DMSO: ≥20mg/mL
  • form powder
  • pka6.3(at 25℃)
  • color yellow
  • optical activity[α]/D -500 to -650°, c = 0.5 in THF
Safety Information
  • Hazard Codes Xn
  • Risk Statements 20/21/22
  • Safety Statements 36/37
  • WGK Germany 3
  • RTECS TY1570210
  • ToxicityLD50 in male, female mice, male rats (mg/kg): 156, 152, 103 orally; 32, 50, 57 i.v. (Pagel)
Levosimendan Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionLevosimendan was introduced in Sweden as an i.v. infusion for the treatment of acute heart failure or refractory symptoms of chronic heart failure in cases where conventional treatment (e.g., diuretic or ACE inhibitor) is not sufficient. Levosimendan is the (R)- enantiomer of simendan that belongs to the same class as pimobendan (Boehringer Ingelheim). Levosimendan is an innovative myofilament calcium sensitizer that increases myocardial contractility by selectively binding to the N-terminus of troponin C and by stabilizing the Ca2+-bound conformation of this contractile protein. It also activates ventricular and arterial adenostne triphosphate-regulated potassium channels which causes vasodilatation in vascular smooth muscle and protects myocardium against infarction. Its low phosphodiesterase III inhibiting activity is probably not responsible for its positive inotropic, lusitropic and dilating effects. Unlike other cardiotonic drugs, levosimendan is able to produce positive inotropic effects without prolonging myocardial relaxation or increasing the incidence of malignant arrythmias. It was clinically shown to have a lower risk of mortality in patients with heart failure when compared to placebo and dobutamine. Since it has a larger potential, levosimendan is currently under further clinical evaluation as a chronic treatment for congestive heart failure.
  • DescriptionLevosimendan is a calcium sensitizer that can cause increased cardiac contractility by binding troponin C (EC50 = 9 nM), promotes vasodilation by activating ATP-sensitive potassium channels on vascular smooth muscle cells (EC50 = 0.28 μM), and performs a cardioprotective function by prompting the opening of mitochondrial potassium channels in cardiomyocytes. It also has been reported to inhibit phosphodiesterases 3 and 4 in left ventricular cardiac tissue with IC50 values of 2.5 nM and 25 μM, respectively.
  • Chemical PropertiesYellow Crystalline Powder
  • OriginatorOrion (Finland)
  • Uses
    Levosimendan has been used for screening its anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) property. It has also been used for screening its cytotoxic effects in TP53 mutant and wild-type lung adenocarcinoma cell lines
  • UsesBioactive enantiomer of racemate, Simendan. Positive inotropic agent with vasodilating activity. Cardiotonic
  • Usesanesthetic
  • brand nameSimdax (Orion Pharmaceutica, Finland).
  • Biochem/physiol ActionsLevosimendan has a potential to inhibit both acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and the reactivation of latent HIV-1 proviruses. Therefore, it is considered to be a promising anti-HIV-1 agent.
Levosimendan Preparation Products And Raw materials
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