ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > Organic Chemistry > Alcohols,Phenols,Phenol alcohols > Acyclic alcohols > 1-Octadecanol
1-Octadecanol Chemical Properties
- Melting point:56-59 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:210 °C15 mm Hg
- Density 0.812 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- vapor density 9.3 (vs air)
- vapor pressure <0.01 mm Hg ( 38 °C)
- refractive index 1.4356 (estimate)
- Flash point:185°C
- storage temp. 2-8°C
- solubility methanol: soluble10mg/mL, clear, colorless
- form Flakes
- color White
- Specific Gravity0.812
- explosive limit~8%
- Water Solubility insoluble
- Merck 14,8805
- BRN 1362907
- CAS DataBase Reference112-92-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry Reference1-Octadecanol(112-92-5)
- EPA Substance Registry System1-Octadecanol (112-92-5)
1-Octadecanol Usage And Synthesis
- Chemical PropertiesUnctuous, white flakes or granules; faint odor; bland taste. Soluble in alcohol, acetone, and ether; insoluble in water. Combustible.
- Chemical PropertiesStearyl alcohol occurs as hard, white, waxy pieces, flakes, or granules with a slight characteristic odor and bland taste.
- Uses1-Octadecanol is used to create cosmetic emulsions, and for its antifoaming and lubricating action. 1-Octadecanol is also a viscosity agent and builder. It is a saturated alcohol of high purity and can substitute for cetyl alcohol in pharmaceutical dispensing, in cosmetic creams, for emulsions, textile oils and finishes, as antifoam agent, lubricant, and chemical raw material.
- UsesSubstitute for cetyl alcohol in pharmaceutical dispensing, in cosmetic creams, for emulsions, textile oils and finishes, as antifoam agent, lubricant, and chemical raw material.
- UsesStearyl alcohol is a lubricant and antifoam agent in cosmetic and pharmaceutical creams and in textile oils and finishes.
- Production MethodsHistorically, stearyl alcohol was prepared from sperm whale oil but is now largely prepared synthetically by reduction of ethyl stearate with lithium aluminum hydride.
- DefinitionChEBI: A fatty alcohol consisting of a hydroxy function at C-1 of an unbranched saturated chain of 18 carbon atoms.
- Synthesis Reference(s)The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 49, p. 2438, 1984 DOI: 10.1021/jo00187a028
Synthetic Communications, 12, p. 463, 1982
- Pharmaceutical Applications1-Octadecanol is used in cosmetics and topical pharmaceutical creams and ointments as a stiffening agent. By increasing the viscosity of an emulsion, stearyl alcohol increases its stability. 1-Octadecanol also has some emollient and weak emulsifying properties, and is used to increase the water-holding capacity of ointments, e.g. petrolatum. In addition, 1-Octadecanol has been used in controlled-release tablets, suppositories, and microspheres.It has also been investigated for use as a transdermal penetration enhancer.
- Safety ProfileMddl~7to xic by ingestion. Questionable carcinogen with experimental neoplastigenic data. A skin and eye irritant. Flammable when exposed to heat or flame; can react with oxidizing materials. To fight fire, use foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. See also ALCOHOLS.
- SafetyStearyl alcohol is generally considered to be an innocuous, nontoxic
material. However, adverse reactions to stearyl alcohol present in
topical preparations have been reported. These include contact
urticaria and hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly due to
impurities contained in stearyl alcohol rather than stearyl alcohol
The probable lethal oral human dose is greater than 15 g/kg.
LD50 (rat, oral): 20 g/kg
- storageStearyl alcohol is stable to acids and alkalis and does not usually become rancid. It should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.
- Purification MethodsCrystallise octadecanol from MeOH, or dry Et2O and *C6H6, then fractionally distil it in vacuo. Also purify it by column chromatography. Free it from cetyl alcohol by zone refining. [Beilstein 1 IV 1888.]
- IncompatibilitiesIncompatible with strong oxidizing agents and strong acids.
- Regulatory StatusIncluded in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (oral tablets, rectal topical, and vaginal preparations). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
1-Octadecanol Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Preparation ProductsDecyl alcoholN,N-Dimethyloctadecylaminedemulsifier KN-1Aliquat 7Octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionateBatyl alcoholsoftener DOD1-BromooctadecaneCation hydroxy silicone oil emulsionO,O'-Dioctadecylpentaerythritol bis(phosphite)STEARYL TARTRATE1-OCTADECENEP-TOLUENESULFONIC ACID N-OCTADECYL ESTERStearyl monoglyceridyl citrateDistearyl thiodipropionateAntifoaming agent DEFDioctadecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride
- Raw materialsStearic acid1-HEPTADECENECUPRIC CHROMATEETHYL STEARATE
- Tetracosanedioic acid Stearic acid BEHENIC ACID TRICOSANOIC ACID NONADECANOIC ACID HEXACOSANOIC ACID Cholesteryl chloroformate OCTACOSANOIC ACID AGARIC ACID 7-Dehydrocholesterol 1-Octadecanol APOCHOLIC ACID 1-Eicosanol Cholesteryl benzoate Cortisone acetate CORTISONE Docosanoic acid HENEICOSANOIC ACID
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