ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > Biochemical Engineering > Saccharides > Polysaccharide > Xanthan gum
Xanthan gum Chemical Properties
- Melting point:64.43 °C
- solubility Soluble in water giving a highly viscous solution, practically insoluble in organic solvents.
- Merck 14,10057
- Stability:Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
- CAS DataBase Reference11138-66-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemXanthan gum (11138-66-2)
- Safety Statements 24/25
- WGK Germany 1
- HS Code 32139000
Xanthan gum Usage And Synthesis
- DescriptionXanthan Gum is a long chain polysaccharide, which is made by mixing fermented sugars (glucose, mannose, and glucuronic acid) with a certain kind of bacteria. It is mainly used to thicken and stabilize emulsions, foams, and suspensions.
Xanthan gum is widely used as a food additive to control the rheological properties of a wide range of food products. In manufacturing, xanthan gum is used as a thickening and stabilizing agent in toothpastes and medicines. It is used to make medicine for lowering blood sugar and total cholesterol in people with diabetes. It is used as a laxative. Xanthan gum is sometimes used as a saliva substitute in people with dry mouth (Sjogren's syndrome).
- References http://www.webmd.com
- Chemical Propertiesviscosity of 1% solution 1,200-1,600 mPas
- Chemical PropertiesXanthan gum occurs as a cream- or white-colored, odorless, freeflowing, fine powder.
- UsesXanthan Gum is a gum obtained by microbial fermentation from the xanthomonas campestris organism. it is very stable to viscosity change over varying temperatures, ph, and salt concentrations. it is also very pseudoplastic which results in a decrease in viscosity with increasing shear. it reacts synergistically with guar gum and tara gum to provide an increase in viscosity and with carob gum to provide an increase in viscosity or gel formation. it is used in salad dressings, sauces, desserts, baked goods, and beverages at 0.05–0.50%.
- UsesIn foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics as stabilizer and thickening agent. For rheology control in water-based systems. In oil and gas drilling and completion fluids.
- Usesxanthan gum (corn starch gum) serves as a texturizer, carrier agent, and gelling agent in cosmetic preparations. It also stabilizes and thickens formulations. This gum is produced through a fermentation of carbohydrate and Xanthomonas campestris.
- Production MethodsXanthan gum is a polysaccharide produced by a pure-culture aerobic fermentation of a carbohydrate with Xanthomonas campestris. The polysaccharide is then purified by recovery with propan-2-ol, dried, and milled.
- brand nameRhodigel (Vanderbilt).
- Pharmaceutical ApplicationsXanthan gum is widely used in oral and topical pharmaceutical
formulations, cosmetics, and foods as a suspending and stabilizing
agent. It is also used as a thickening and emulsifying agent. It is
nontoxic, compatible with most other pharmaceutical ingredients,
and has good stability and viscosity properties over a wide pH and
temperature range. Xanthan gum gels show
pseudoplastic behavior, the shear thinning being directly proportional
to the shear rate. The viscosity returns to normal immediately
on release of shear stress.
Xanthan gum has been used as a suspending agent for conventional, dry and sustained-release suspensions. When xanthan gum is mixed with certain inorganic suspending agents, such as magnesium aluminum silicate, or organic gums, synergistic rheological effects occur. In general, mixtures of xanthan gum and magnesium aluminum silicate in ratios between 1 : 2 and 1 : 9 produce the optimum properties. Similarly, optimum synergistic effects are obtained with xanthan gum : guar gum ratios between 3 : 7 and 1 : 9.
Although primarily used as a suspending agent, xanthan gum has also been used to prepare sustained-release matrix tablets. Controlled-release tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride prepared using xanthan gum have been reported to sustain the drug release in a predictable manner, and the drug release profiles of these tablets were not affected by pH and agitation rate. Xanthan gum has also been used to produce directly compressed matrices that display a high degree of swelling due to water uptake, and a small amount of erosion due to polymer relaxation. It has also been used in combination with chitosan, guar gum, galactomannan, and sodium alginate to prepare sustained-release matrix tablets. Xanthan gum has been used as a binder, and in combination with Konjac glucomannan is used as an excipient for controlled colonic drug delivery. Xanthan gum with boswellia (3 : 1) and guar gum (10 : 20) have shown the best release profiles for the colon-specific compression coated systems of 5- fluorouracil for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Xanthan gum has also been used with guar gum for the development of a floating drug delivery system.It has also has derivatized to sodium carboxymethyl xanthan gum and crosslinked with aluminum ions to prepare microparticles, as a carrier for protein delivery. Xanthan gum has been incorporated in an ophthalmic liquid dosage form, which interacts with mucin, thereby helping in the prolonged retention of the dosage form in the precorneal area. When added to liquid ophthalmics, xanthan gum delays the release of active substances, increasing the therapeutic activity of the pharmaceutical formulations.
Xanthan gum can be used to increase the bioadhesive strength in vaginal formulations. Xanthan gum alone or with carbopol 974P has been used as a mucoadhesive controlled-release excipient for buccal drug delivery. Modified xanthan films have been used as a matrix system for transdermal delivery of atenolol. Xanthan gum has also been used as a gelling agent for topical formulations incorporating solid lipid nanoparticles of vitamin A or microemulsion of ibuprofen. A combined polymer system consisting of xanthan gum, carboxy methylcellulose and a polyvinyl pyrolidone backboned polymer has been used for relieving the symptoms of xerostomia. Xanthan gum can also be used as an excipient for spray-drying and freeze-drying processes for better results. It has been successfully used alone or in combination with agar for microbial culture media.
Xanthan gum is also used as a hydrocolloid in the food industry, and in cosmetics it has been used as a thickening agent in shampoo. Polyphosphate with xanthum gum in soft drinks is suggested to be effective at reducing erosion of enamel
- Safety ProfileWhen heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
- SafetyXanthan gum is widely used in oral and topical pharmaceutical
formulations, cosmetics, and food products, and is generally
regarded as nontoxic and nonirritant at the levels employed as a
The estimated acceptable daily intake for xanthan gum has been set by the WHO at up to 10 mg/kg body-weight.
No eye or skin irritation has been observed in rabbits and no skin allergy has been observed in guinea pigs following skin exposure. No adverse effects were observed in long term feeding studies with rats (up to 1000 mg/kg/day) and dogs (up to 1000 mg/kg/day). No adverse effects were observed in a three-generation reproduction study with rats (up to 500 mg/kg/day).
LD50 (dog, oral): >20 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): >45 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): >1 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, IP): >50 mg/kg
LD50 (mouse, IV): 100–250 mg/kg
- storageXanthan gum is a stable material. Aqueous solutions are stable over
a wide pH range (pH 3–12), although they demonstrate maximum
stability at pH 4–10 and temperatures of 10–60°C. Xanthan gum
solutions of less than 1% w/v concentration may be adversely
affected by higher than ambient temperatures: for example,
viscosity is reduced. Xanthan gum provides the same thickening,
stabilizing, and suspending properties during long-term storage at
elevated temperatures as it does at ambient conditions. In addition,
it ensures excellent freeze–thaw stability. Solutions are also stable in
the presence of enzymes, salts, acids, and bases. Vanzan NF-ST is
especially designed for use in systems containing high salt
concentrations as it dissolves directly in salt solutions, and its viscosity is relatively unaffected by high salt levels as compared with
general purpose grades.
The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.
- IncompatibilitiesXanthan gum is an anionic material and is not usually compatible
with cationic surfactants, polymers, or preservatives, as precipitation
occurs. Anionic and amphoteric surfactants at concentrations
above 15% w/v cause precipitation of xanthan gum from a
Under highly alkaline conditions, polyvalent metal ions such as calcium cause gelation or precipitation; this may be inhibited by the addition of a glucoheptonate sequestrant. The presence of low levels of borates (<300 ppm) can also cause gelation. This may be avoided by increasing the boron ion concentration or by lowering the pH of a formulation to less than pH 5. The addition of ethylene glycol, sorbitol, or mannitol may also prevent this gelation.
Xanthan gum is compatible with most synthetic and natural viscosity-increasing agents, many strong mineral acids, and up to 30% inorganic salts. If it is to be combined with cellulose derivatives, then xanthan gum free of cellulase should be used to prevent depolymerization of the cellulose derivative. Xanthan gum solutions are stable in the presence of up to 60% water-miscible organic solvents such as acetone, methanol, ethanol, or propan-2- ol. However, above this concentration precipitation or gelation occurs.
The viscosity of xanthan gum solutions is considerably increased, or gelation occurs, in the presence of some materials such as ceratonia, guar gum, and magnesium aluminum silicate. This effect is most pronounced in deionized water and is reduced by the presence of salt. This interaction may be desirable in some instances and can be exploited to reduce the amount of xanthan gum used in a formulation.
Xanthan gum is incompatible with oxidizing agents, some tablet film-coatings, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, dried aluminum hydroxide gel, and some active ingredients such as amitriptyline, tamoxifen, and verapamil.
- Regulatory StatusGRAS listed. Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (oral solutions, suspensions, and tablets; rectal and topical preparations). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
Xanthan gum Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Dipotassium glycyrrhizinate D-Lactose monohy Agar Sodium lactate Sodium diacetate Sodium lactate Gelatin Guar gum DEHYDROXANTHAN GUM Xanthan gum, acetate UNDECYLENOYL XANTHAN GUM HYDROXYPROPYL XANTHAN GUM XANTHAN GUM , 80 MESH PHARMA GRADE XANTHAN GUM , 80MESH , FOOD GRADE XANTHAN GUM FOOD GRADE XANTHAN GUM (INSTRUCTIONS XANTHAN GUM 200 MESH XANTHAN GUM , 200MESH , FOOD GRADE
Xanthan gum SupplierMore
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