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Iodic acid

Basic information Physical Properties Uses Preparation Safety Related Supplier
Iodic acid Basic information
Iodic acid Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:110°C (dec.)
  • Density 4.63 g/cm3
  • pka1.28±0.53(Predicted)
  • form Solid
  • color White to off-white
  • Specific Gravity4.629
  • Water Solubility 269 g/100 mL (20 ºC)
  • Sensitive Light Sensitive
  • Merck 14,5012
  • Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong reducing agents, alcohols, organic materials. Light-sensitive.
  • InChIKeyICIWUVCWSCSTAQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • CAS DataBase Reference7782-68-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemIodic acid (7782-68-5)
Safety Information
  • Hazard Codes O,C
  • Risk Statements 8-34
  • Safety Statements 17-26-36/37/39-45
  • RIDADR UN 3085 5.1/PG 2
  • WGK Germany 3
  • 8
  • TSCA Yes
  • HazardClass 5.1
  • PackingGroup II
  • HS Code 28111980
MSDS
Iodic acid Usage And Synthesis
  • Physical PropertiesWhite stable crystalline solid; rhombohedral crystals; occurs in two forms: the normal HIO3, and pyroiodic acid HI3O8.
  • UsesAqueous solutions of iodic acid serve as strong oxidizing agents. The acid also is used in redox titrations.
  • PreparationIodic acid may be prepared by the reaction of sulfuric acid with barium iodate. The solution is filtered to remove barium sulfate and then crystallized to obtain iodic acid:
    Ba(IO3)2 + H2SO4 → BaSO4 + 2HIO3
    It also may be produced by oxidation of iodine with concentrated nitric acid:
    3I2 + 10HNO3 → 6HIO3 + 10NO + 2H2O
    Also, iodic acid may be obtained by oxidation of iodine with chlorine in dilute acidic solutions:
    I2 + 5Cl2 + 6H2O → 2HIO3 + 10HCl
    Another method of preparation involves oxidation of iodine with hydrogen peroxide:
    I2 + 5H2O2 → 2HIO3 + 4H2O
    It also may be prepared by treating hypoiodous acid with a base:
    3HIO + 2OH¯ → HIO3 + 2H2O + I¯
    Hypoiodous acid may be obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of iodine at pH 12:
    I2 + H2O → HIO + H+ + I¯
    Iodic acid dehydrates to iodine pentaoxide when heated at 180°C:
    2HIO3 → I2H5 + H2O
    Iodic acid is a relatively weak monoprotic acid, the Ka value at 25°C is 1.6 x 10–1. Several species have been detected in concentrated aqueous solutions, which include IO3¯, H+, HIO3, (HIO3)2 and (HIO3)3. Its solution turns blue litmus red and then bleaches the litmus paper because of its strong oxidizing properties.
    When heated with potassium iodate, potassium hydrogen iodate is formed:
    HIO3 + KIO3 → KH(IO3)2
    An aqueous solution of iodic acid is a strong oxidizing agent. It liberates iodine from iodides:
    IO3¯ + 5I¯ + 6H+ → 3I2 + 3H2O or,
    HIO3 + 5HI → 3I2 + 3H2O
    In an aqueous solution, iodic acid oxidizes hydrogen sulfide to sulfur:
    2HIO3 + 5H2S → I2 + 6H2O + 5S
    The solid iodic acid reacts vigorously with sulfur, phosphorus and other nonmetals.
  • Chemical Propertiescolorless, rhomb crystal(s) or white, crystal(s) powder(s); darkens on exposure to light; it is a moderately strong acid; used in analytical chemistry and in medicine [HAW93] [MER06]
  • Physical propertiesIodic acid, HIO3, can be obtained as a white solid. It dissolves in water very well, but it also exists in the pure state, as opposed to chloric acid or bromic acid. Iodic acid contains iodine in the oxidation state+5 and it is one of the most stable oxo-acids of the halogens in its pure state. When iodic acid is carefully heated, it dehydrates to iodine pentoxide. On subsequent heating, the iodine pentoxide further decomposes, giving a mixture of iodine, oxygen and lower oxides of iodine.
    Iodic acid can be produced by oxidizing I2 with chlorine in an aqueous solution. Iodic acid can be used to synthesize sodium or potassium iodate salts (which are used in salt as a source of iodine in the human body.
  • UsesA strong acid in analytical chemistry.
  • Definitioniodic acid: Any of various oxoacids of iodine, such as iodic(V) acid and iodic(VII) acid. When used without an oxidation state specifled, the term usually refers to iodic(V) acid (HIO3).
  • PreparationIodic acid may be prepared by the reaction of sulfuric acid with bariumiodate. The solution is filtered to remove barium sulfate and then crystallizedto obtain iodic acid:
    Ba(IO3)2 + H2SO4 → BaSO4 + 2HIO3
    It also may be produced by oxidation of iodine with concentrated nitric acid:
    3I2 + 10HNO3 → 6HIO3 + 10NO + 2H2O
    Also, iodic acid may be obtained by oxidation of iodine with chlorine in diluteacidic solutions:
    I2 + 5Cl2 + 6H2O → 2HIO3 + 10HCl
    Another method of preparation involves oxidation of iodine with hydrogenperoxide:
    I2 + 5H2O2 → 2HIO3 + 4H2O
    It also may be prepared by treating hypoiodous acid with a base:
    3HIO + 2OH¯ → HIO3 + 2H2O + I¯
    Hypoiodous acid may be obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of iodine at pH 12:
    I2 + H2O → HIO + H+ + I¯
    Iodic acid dehydrates to iodine pentaoxide when heated at 180°C:
    2HIO3 → I2H5 + H2O
    Iodic acid is a relatively weak monoprotic acid, the Ka value at 25°C is 1.6x10-1. Several species have been detected in concentrated aqueous solutions,which include IO3-, H+, HIO3, (HIO3)2 and (HIO3)3. Its solution turns blue lit-mus red and then bleaches the litmus paper because of its strong oxidizingproperties.
    When heated with potassium iodate, potassium hydrogen iodate is formed:
    HIO3 + KIO3 → KH(IO3)2
    An aqueous solution of iodic acid is a strong oxidizing agent. It liberates iodine from iodides:
    IO3¯ + 5I¯ + 6H+ → 3I2 + 3H2O or, HIO3 + 5HI → 3I2 + 3H2O
    In an aqueous solution, iodic acid oxidizes hydrogen sulfide to sulfur:
    2HIO3 + 5H2S → I2 + 6H2O + 5S
    The solid iodic acid reacts vigorously with sulfur, phosphorus and other non-metals.
  • HazardToxic by ingestion, strong irritant to eyes and skin.
  • Purification MethodsDissolve iodic acid in the minimum volume of hot dilute HNO3, filter and evaporate in a vacuum desiccator until crystals are formed. Collect the crystals and wash them with a little cold H2O and dry them in air in the dark. It is soluble in H2O: 269g/100mL at 20o and 295g/100mL at 40o. It is soluble in dilute EtOH and darkens on exposure to light. It is converted to HIO3.I2O5 on heating at 70o, but at 220o complete conversion to HIO3 occurs. [Lamb et al. J Am Chem Soc 42 1636 1920, Bray & Caulkins J Am Chem Soc 53 44 1931.]
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