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Cyclopentadecanone

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Cyclopentadecanone Basic information
Cyclopentadecanone Chemical Properties
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  • Safety Statements 22-24/25
  • WGK Germany 2
  • RTECS GY0900000
  • TSCA Yes
  • HS Code 29142900
MSDS
Cyclopentadecanone Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical PropertiesWHITE CRYSTALLINE POWDER
  • Chemical PropertiesCyclopentadecanone is a musk fragrance found in the scent gland of the male civet cat.
    A number of syntheses have been developed for its manufacture [260]. Among these, the so-called Story procedure is the only route that has the potential to make cyclopentadecanone available on a larger scale, but due to the handling of hydroperoxides, the process is difficult to manage.
    The process starts from tricyclohexylidene triperoxide, which is obtained by oxidation of cyclohexanone with hydrogen peroxide. Pyrolysis leads to a mixture of 1,16-hexadecanolide and cyclopentadecane. The latter is oxidized by oxygen under boric acid catalysis to cyclopentadecanol, which is subsequently oxidized to cyclopentadecanone.
    Due to the availability of long-chained aliphatic dicarboxylic acids by biotechnological processes, a Dieckmann condensation reaction may also possibly be a useful route to produce this macrocyclic ketone.
    Cyclopentadecanone is used in fine fragrances:
  • OccurrenceReported to be found in the scent glands of the Louisiana muskrat Ondatra zibethicus rivalicius (Guenther, 1949).
  • PreparationBy the cyclization of dinitriles in high dilution (Bedoukian. 1967).
  • Toxicity evaluationBoth the acute oral LD50 value in rats and the acute dermal LD50 value in rabbits exceeded 5 g/kg (Moreno. 1975). The acute ip LD100 of cyclopentadecanone was not reached but was estimated to be >35mmol/kg for mice; an ip dose of 11-25 mmol/kg caused no deaths in 24 hr and one of 8-92 mmol/kg caused no deaths in 4 days (the length of the study). An oral dose of ≥45 mmol/kg caused no deaths in mice. Intense agitation accompanied by catatonia of the tail was caused by low doses of cyclopentadecanone; gross examination of the mice revealed no specific pathology but occasionally degenerative hepatitis, proximal tubular nephritis and, rarely, pancreatic necrosis were found following dosing with cycloalkanones (Caujolle & Caujolle, 1965).
  • MetabolismKetones are not readily metabolized, although most of them probably undergo appreciable reduction to the corresponding secondary alcohols, which are excreted in the urine as glucuronic acid conjugates (Williams, 1959). Cyclopentadecanone was hydroxylated in cultures of four steroid-hydroxylating fungi (Calonectria decora, Rhizopus nigricans, Daedalea rufescens and Ophiobolus herpotrichus), but was not affected by Aspergillus ochraceus. Initial attack occurred at the most remote carbon atom, with yields of up to 26% of 8-hydroxycyclopentadecanone, plus dihydroxy compounds and more polar products (Ashton, Bailey & Jones, 1974).
  • Purification MethodsSubliming Exaltone is better than crystallising it from aqueous EtOH for purification. The semicarbazone has m 186-187o. [Stevens & Erickson J Am Chem Soc 64 146 1942, Mathur et al. J Chem Soc 3505 1963, Biens & Hess Helv Chim Acta 71 1704 1988, Beilstein 7 III 203, 7 IV 118.]
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