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BROMODICHLOROMETHANE

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BROMODICHLOROMETHANE Basic information
BROMODICHLOROMETHANE Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:−55 °C(lit.)
  • Boiling point:87 °C(lit.)
  • Density 1.98 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
  • vapor pressure 50 at 20 °C (Dreisbach, 1952)
  • refractive index n20/D 1.497(lit.)
  • Flash point:87-89°C
  • storage temp. 2-8°C
  • solubility water: insoluble
  • form neat
  • color Clear, colorless liquid
  • Water Solubility 3.032g/L(30 ºC)
  • Merck 14,1417
  • BRN 1697005
  • Henry's Law ConstantIn seawater (salinity 30.4‰): 5.52, 10.51, and 18.97 at 0, 10, and 20 °C, respectively (Moore et al., 1995)
  • CAS DataBase Reference75-27-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • IARC2B (Vol. 52, 71) 1999
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemDichlorobromomethane (75-27-4)
Safety Information
MSDS
BROMODICHLOROMETHANE Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical Propertiesclear colorless to yellowish liquid
  • Chemical PropertiesBromodichloromethane (BDCM) is a colorless, heavy, non-burnable/non-flammable liquid. It was formerly used as a flame retardant, a solvent for fats and waxes and because of its high density for mineral separation. Now, it is only used as a reagent or intermediate in organic chemistry. Small amounts of BDCM are also made in chemical plants for use in laboratories or in making other chemicals. On contact with hot surfaces or flames, BDMC decomposes forming toxic and corrosive gases, including hydrogen bromide and hydrogen chloride and reacts with strong bases, strong oxidants, and magnesium. BDMC is found in chlorinated drinking water as a consequence of the reaction between chlorine, added during water treatme
  • UsesAs a chemical intermediate for organic synthesis and as a laboratory reagent; formerly used as a solvent and flame retardant. Currently, the major source of bromodichloromethane in the environment is from its formation as a by-product during chlorination of water.
  • UsesA volatile halogenated methane present in trace amounts in drinking water as a result of the water treatment process. It is also present in swimming pools due to chlorination and can be used as tracers to identify water leaks. It is useful as chain transfer agents in PVC polymerization.
  • UsesChemical reagent, intermediate in organic synthesis.
  • DefinitionChEBI: A one-carbon compound that is methane substituted by a bromo and two chloro groups. It occurs as a contaminant in drinking water.
  • Synthesis Reference(s)Tetrahedron Letters, 28, p. 2769, 1987 DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(00)96205-1
  • General DescriptionClear colorless liquid.
  • Air & Water ReactionsSlightly water soluble.
  • Reactivity ProfileBROMODICHLOROMETHANE may react with strong bases and magnesium. Incompatible with oxidizing materials .
  • Health HazardSYMPTOMS: Symptoms of exposure to BROMODICHLOROMETHANE may include irritation of the skin, eyes, mucous membranes and respiratory tract. It may also cause narcosis. Other symptoms may include nausea, dizziness and headache. It may also cause liver and kidney damage. Central nervous system effects may also occur.
  • Health HazardOn ingestion, BDMC causes damage to the kidneys, liver, and impaired functio
  • Fire HazardLiterature sources indicate that BROMODICHLOROMETHANE is nonflammable.
  • Safety ProfileConfirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic data. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Human mutation data reported. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of Brand Cl-. See also CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS, ALIPHATIC; and BROMIDES.
  • CarcinogenicityBromodichloromethane is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.
  • SourceMCLG: zero; MCL: 0.08 mg/L. Total for all trihalomethanes cannot exceed a concentration of 0.08 mg/L. In addition, a DWEL of 700 μg/L was recommended (U.S. EPA, 2000).
    By-product in chlorination of drinking water and use of fire extinguishers (quoted, Verschueren, 1983).
  • Environmental FateBiological. Bromodichloromethane showed significant degradation with gradual adaptation in a static-culture flask-screening test (settled domestic wastewater inoculum) conducted at 25 °C. At concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/L, percent losses after 4 wk of incubation were 59 and 51, respectively. At a substrate concentration of 5 mg/L, 8% was lost due to volatilization after 10 d (Tabak et al., 1981).
    Chemical/Physical. The estimated hydrolysis half-life in water at 25 °C and pH 7 is 137 yr (Mabey and Mill, 1978). Reported products of hydrolysis include carbon monoxide, hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids (Ellington et al., 1993; Kollig, 1993).
    At influent concentrations of 1.0, 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 mg/L, the GAC adsorption capacities at pH 5.3 were 7.9, 1.9, 0.47, and 0.12 mg/g, respectively (Dobbs and Cohen, 1980).
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